Monitoring diseases of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Russia


Z.Ya. Zinatullina, T.Y. Dolnikova, T.F. Domatskaya, A.N. Domatsky

Russia has favorable natural and climatic conditions and forage base for the beekeeping development. According to Russian Federal State Statistics Service, in 2016 the total number of bee colonies was 3.3 million, of which 3.1 million or 94% of the existing bee colonies were in private households with 78 regions out of 85 subjects of the Russian Federation being engaged in beekeeping. However, climate change, various biotic and anthropogenic factors have a negative impact on the state of the industry, manifested, first of all, in reducing the productivity of bee colonies, their quality, ability to resist diseases. Analysis of the results of research on bee colonies from 18 regions of the country (Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kirov, Leningrad, Moscow, Orenburg, Penza, Tomsk, Tula, and Tyumen regions; Altai, Krasnodar, Perm and Stavropol krais; republics of Mari El, Tatarstan, and Udmurtia) shows that the surveyed apiaries are affected by acariases, bacterioses, viroses, mycoses and microsporidioses of bees. The study of bees and brood samples showed viruses such as deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), sacbrood virus (SBV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir virus (KBV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV); bacteria: Paenibacillus larvae larvae, Melissococcus pluton, Escherichia coli; Ascosphaera apis fungus; mites Varroa destructor, Acarapis externus, Acarapis woodi Rennie; microsporidia Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae. Of the most common mixed infection-invasions of bees, the following can be identified: varroosis-nosemosis, varroosis-ascosphaerosis, varroosis-nosemosis-ascosphaerosis, varroosis-virosis (deformed wing virus), varroosis-virosis (sacbrood), varroosis-American foulbrood and European foulbrood. Studies conducted in Russia recent years are the basis for the development of a monitoring system for bee diseases in the country. To obtain objective data, joint efforts of scientists, the state veterinary service and owners of apiaries are needed. First of all, such kind of events should be held in regions with a large number of bee colonies (Altai, Krasnodar and Primorye krais; republics of Bashkortostan, Dagestan, Tatarstan, Udmurtia; Belgorod region.) Special attention should be paid to breeding farms.

Keywords: Honey bees Apis mellifera; diseases; monitoring; Russia

Ayoub, Z.N., Saeed, A.Ya., Vandame, J. (2013). Detection of American foulbrood disease in the apiaries of Duhok province, Kurdistan region, Iraq. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 6 (3), 18-21.
Batuev, Yu.M., Grobov, O.F., Berezina, L.K., Sichanok, E.V., Sazonova, S.A. (2008). The devastating death of bees in the United States. Beekeeping, 5, 28-30 (In Russian).
Batuev, Yu.M., Kartsev, V.M., Berezin, M.V. (2010). The problems of reducing the number of bee families. Beekeeping, 4, 28-30 (in Russian).
Beekeeping of Russia in the mirror of Russian and forein statistic. (2018). Retrieved from (in Russian).
Budge, G.E., Pietravalle S., Brown M., Laurenson L., Jones B., Tomkies V., Delaplane K.S. (2015) Pathogens as predictors of honey bee colony strength in England and Wales. PLoS ONE, 10(7), 1-10.
Chen, Y.P., Evans, J.D., Smith, I.B., Pettis, J.S. (2008) Nosema ceranae is a long-present and wide-spread microsporidian infection of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the United States. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 97, 186-188.
Fedoriak, M.M., Tymochko, L.I., Kulmanov, O.M., Volkov, R.A., Rudenko, S.S. (2017) Winter losses of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) coloniesin Ukraine (monitoring results of 2015-2016). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 7(4), 604–613. (in Ukraine) doi: 10.15421/2017_167
Fries, I. (2010) Nosema ceranae in European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 103, 73-79.
Galatyuk, A., Kisternaya, A., Musienko, A. (2014) The assessment of epizootic honeybees North-East of Ukraine. Scientific messenger of LNU of veterinary medicine and biotechnologies, 3(60), 79-85. (in Ukraine)
Goblirsch, M. (2018) Nosema ceranae disease of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Apidologie, 1(49), 133-150.
Grobov, O.F., Batuev, Yu.M., Kuzmicheva, N.V., Sichanok, E.V. (2006) Viroses of bees. Beekeeping, 7, 26-28 (in Russian).
Grobov, O.F., Batuev, Yu.M., Kuzmicheva, N.V., Sichanok, E.V. (2006) Viroses of bees. Beekeeping, 8, 27-28 (in Russian).
Grobov, O.F., Batuev, Yu.M., Kuzmicheva, N.V., Sichanok, E.V. (2006) Viroses of bees. Beekeeping, 9, 27-29 (in Russian).
Grobov, O.F., Batuev, Yu.M., Kuzmicheva, N.V., Sichanok, E.V. (2006) Viroses of bees. Beekeeping, 10, 25-26 (in Russian).
Higes М., Martin-Hernandez R., Meana A. (2010) Nosema ceranae in Europe: an emergent type C nosemosis. Apidologie, 41 (3), 375-392.
Hristov, P., Georgieva, A., Radoslavov, G., Sirakova, D., Dzhebir, G., Shumkova, R., Neov, B., Bouga, M. (2017) The first report of the prevalence of Nosema ceranae in Bulgaria. Peer J Preprints, 5, 1-20.
Ilyina, E.K., Aladdin, O.I. (2014) Epizootology of honey bee diseases on the territory of Orenburg region. Proceedings of the Orenburg state university, 4(48), 183-185. (in Russian)
Kalashnikov, A.E., Udina I.G. (2017) Distribution of RNA-containing bee viruses in honey bee (Apis mellifera) in several regions of Russia. Molecular genetics, microbiology and virology, 1(32), 35-41. doi:10.3103/S0891416817010086.
Kalashnikov A.E., Maslennikov I.V., Kolbina L.M., Udina I.G (2013) Genetic differentiation of populations of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and distribution of RNA-containing viruses at the background of epizootia of Varroa destructor on the territory of Udmurtia. Agricultural Biology, 4, 88-92. (in Russian) doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2013.4.88rus
Khanbekova E.M., Rubtsova L.E., Babin Yu.Yu., Elatkin N.P., Lavrukhin D.K., Tretyakov A.V., Sprygin A.V. (2013). Viruses and parasites of Apis mellifera caucasica Gorb. as related to losses of honeybee colonies in big Kaukas mountings in Azerbaijan under different ebvironmental conditions and location. Agricultural Biology, 6, 43-54. (in Russian)
Kojima Y., Toki T., Morimoto T., Yoshiyama M., Kimura K., Kadowaki T. M. (2011) Infestation of Japanese native honey bees by tracheal mite and virus from non-native European honey bees in Japan Microbial Ecology, 62(4),895-906. doi: 10.1007/s00248-011-9947-z.
Kulhanek K., Steinhauer N., Rennich K., Caron D.M., Sagili R.R., Pettis J.S., Ellis J.D., Wilson M.E., Wilkes J.T., Tarpy D.R., Rose R., Lee K., Rangel J., van Engelsdorp D. (2017) A national survey of managed honey bee 2015-2016 annual colony losses in the USA. Journal of Apicultural Research, 56(4), 328-340. doi: 10.1080/00218839.2017.1344496.
Makarov S.G., Porfirev I.A., Sotnikova E.D. (2010) Diagnosing contamination degree varroatosis and nosematosis apis economy of Republic Marias El and preventive action carried out on an apiary. RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries, 4, 61-67. (in Russian)
Maslennikova V.I., Klimov E.A., Korolev A.V., Kokaeva Z.G., Gareev R.R., Lunkova A.A. (2017). Evalution of the influence of viral and mite prevalence on bee mortality. Beekeeping, 5, 28-30. (in Russian)
Maslennikova V.I., Goleva T.P. (2011) Epizootic monitoring of main contagious bee discases in the apiaries of Moscow region greenhouse farms. Russian Veterinary Journal, 1, 20-22. (in Russian)
Mass death of bees in Bashkortostan: causes, consequences, forecasts. (2017) Portal Retrived from (in Russian)
Nazarova N.P. (2014) Higienic behavior of bees as a factor in resistance to micosis. Privolzhsky scientific bulletin, 3 (31), 11-13. (in Russian)
Natsopoulou M. E., Doublet V., Paxton R. J. (2016) European isolates of the Microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae have similar virulence in laboratory tests on European worker honey bees. Apidologia, 47, 57–65, doi: 10/1007/s13592-015-0375-9
Nepeivoda S.N., Kolbina L.M. (2014) The prognosis of the development of an epizootic situation on diseases of bees and the collapse of bee colonies in the Udmurt Republic. Materials of the First International Scientific and Practical Conference, dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the birth of M.A. Dernova. “Problems and prospects of conservation of the gene pool of honey bees in modern conditions”, Kirov, 87-89. (in Russian)
Neumann P., Carreck N.L. (2010). Honey bee colony losses. Journal of Apicultural Research, 49(1), 1–6. doi: 10.3896/IBRA.
Ostroverkhova N.V., Konusova O.L., Kucher A.N., Simakova A.V., Golubeva E.P., Kireeva T.N., Sharakhov I.V. (2016) Infestation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) families by microsporidians of the genus Nosema in Tomsk province. Parazitologiya, 3(50), 197-210. (in Russian)
Ostroverkhova N.V., Golubeva E.P., Badmazhapova E.A., Kucher A.N., Konusova O.L., Pogorelov Y.L. (2018) Nosematosis type C in Siberia: retrospective analysis. Beekeeping, 1, 26-28. (in Russian)
Paxton R. J., Klee J., Korpela S., Fries I. (2007) Nosema ceranae has infected Apis mellifera in Europe since at least 1998 and may be more virulent than Nosema apis. Apidologia, 38 (6), 558–565, doi: 10.1051/apido:2007037
Petukhov A.V., Popov A.S., Kazakova A.N. (2014) Resistance to nosematosis of bees of different races. Materials of the first international scientific and practical conference, dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the birth of M.A. Dernova. “Problems and prospects of conservation of the gene pool of honey bees in modern conditions”, Kirov, 65-68. (in Russian)
Shakirov R.F., Nikitin I.N. (2016) Epizootology certain infections and parasitic diseases bees in the republic of Tatarstan. Scientific notes of the Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine of Bauman’s N.E., 217 (3), 56-60. (in Russian)
Sokhlikov A.B., Ignatieva G.I., Chernyshov A.A. (2012) PCR-RT method for identification of nosematosis pathogens. Beekeeping, 1, 24-25. (in Russian)
The mass death of bees in Russia in places reaches 100%. (2017) Information Agency «Rosbalt». Retrived from (in Russian)
Toplak I., Ciglenecki U. J., Aronstein K., Gregorc A. (2013) Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.). Viruses, 5, 2282-2297. doi:10.3390/v5092282
Tsevegmid K., Neumann P., Yañez O. (2016) The honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia: european viruses in Central Asia. PLoS ONE, 11(3), 1-16.
Vasilevskij K.M., Domolazov S.M. (2011) Epizootic situation of beekeeping in infection and parasitic diseases of bees in the republic of Tatarstan. Scientific notes of the Kazan state academy of veterinary medicine of Bauman’s N.E., 205, 36-40. (in Russian)
Van der Zee R., Brodschneider R., Brusbardis V., Charrière J-D., Chlebo R., Coffey M.F., Dahle B., Drazic M.M., Kauko L., Kretavicius J., Kristiansen, P., Mutinelli, F., Otten, Ch., Peterson, M., Raudmets, A., Santrac, V., Seppälä, A., Soroker, V., Topolska, G., Vejsnæs, F., Gray, A. (2014) Results of international standardised beekeeper surveys of colony losses for winter 2012-2013: analysis of winter loss rates and mixed effects modelling of risk factors for winter loss. Journal of Apicultural Research, 53(1). 19-34. doi: 10.3896/IBRA.
Zinatullina, Z.Ya., Ignatieva, A.N., Zhigileva, O.N., Tokarev, Yu.S. (2011) "Asian" nosematosis in Russia. Beekeeping, 11, 24-26. (in Russian)
Zinatullina, Z.Ya. (2016) Pathogens nosema honey bees on apiaries of the Tyumen region. Proceedings of the All-Russian scientific research institute of veterinary arachnology and entomology, 53, 124-128. (in Russian)
Zinatullina, Z.Ya., Domatskaya, T.F., Domatsky, A.N. (2017) Infection diseases of bees on apiaries of the Tyumen region. Beekeeping, 8, 20-22 (In Russian).


Share this article