Monitoring diseases of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Russia
Z.Ya. Zinatullina, T.Y. Dolnikova, T.F.Domatskaya, A.N.Domatsky
Russia has favorable natural and climatic conditions and forage base for the beekeeping development. According to Russian Federal State Statistics Service, in 2016 the total number of bee colonies was 3.3 million, of which 3.1 million or 94% of the existing bee colonies were in private households with 78 regions out of 85 subjects of the Russian Federation being engaged in beekeeping. However, climate change, various biotic and anthropogenic factors have a negative impact on the state of the industry, manifested, first of all, in reducing the productivity of bee colonies, their quality, ability to resist diseases. Analysis of the results of research on bee colonies from 18 regions of the country (Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kirov, Leningrad, Moscow, Orenburg, Penza, Tomsk, Tula, and Tyumen regions; Altai, Krasnodar, Perm and Stavropol krais; republics of Mari El, Tatarstan, and Udmurtia) shows that the surveyed apiaries are affected by acariases, bacterioses, viroses, mycoses and microsporidioses of bees. The study of bees and brood samples showed viruses such as deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), sacbrood virus (SBV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir virus (KBV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV); bacteria: Paenibacillus larvae larvae, Melissococcus pluton, Escherichia coli; Ascosphaera apis fungus; mites Varroa destructor, Acarapis externus, Acarapis woodi Rennie; microsporidia Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae. Of the most common mixed infection-invasions of bees, the following can be identified: varroosis-nosemosis, varroosis-ascosphaerosis, varroosis-nosemosis-ascosphaerosis, varroosis-virosis (deformed wing virus), varroosis-virosis (sacbrood), varroosis-American foulbrood and European foulbrood. Studies conducted in Russia recent years are the basis for the development of a monitoring system for bee diseases in the country. To obtain objective data, joint efforts of scientists, the state veterinary service and owners of apiaries are needed. First of all, such kind of events should be held in regions with a large number of bee colonies (Altai, Krasnodar and Primorye krais; republics of Bashkortostan, Dagestan, Tatarstan, Udmurtia; Belgorod region.) Special attention should be paid to breeding farms.