Morfological Features Of The Warm-blooded Animals` Spleen


O. F. Dunaievska

The spleen is an important multifunctional organ, one of parts of the peripheral immune system and hematopoiesis. It is sensitive to biotic, abiotic, and environmental factors. Determination of morphological features and morphometric parameters are important for the development of organ test-systems. The major indicators are the relative weight of the spleen and its main structural components. These criteria could be used in the therapy, prevention, pathology, the study of influence of factors of different origins, for received from farm animals environmentally friendly and safe products. Our research was carried out by light microscopy with the production of permanent histological preparations. The formalin and Сarnoy liquid were used as fixatives. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin, eosin, and azure by methods of Van Gieson and Brachet. Spleen has the same structure and principle consists of a support-contractile apparatus and pulp in birds and mammals. Each animal species had its own characteristic of morphological features. The relative weight of spleen was the greatest in horses (0.48±0,01 %) and the lowest was in pigeons (0.02±0.01 %). Support-contractile apparatus was better developed in horses (13.64±1.13 %) and sheep (12.08±0.42 %), and the lesser in chickens (3.02±0.95 %) and rabbits (5.87±0.69 %). The proportion of trabecular system prevailed on the proportion of capsules in all studied animals, except rabbits. The birds had no radial trabeculae, in rabbits they are insignificant. The number of capsular trabecular are lesser than the pulps in horses, pigs, and sheep. Large pulps` trabeculae are united together, forming trabecular tree, while parenchyma is formed by the white and red pulp. The main structural components of the white pulp are the lymphoid nodules and lymphoid sheath near the vessels. The lymphoid nodules have zonal structure in mammals, whereas they are absent in birds. The relative area of lymphoid nodules in animals dominates under the area of lymphoid sheaths near the vessels; this difference was more than twice in horses (5.01±0.63 and 2.41±0.17 %), rabbits (11.95±2.67 and 5.73±1.40 %). In all the studied mammals the light center had the largest relative area in rabbits (2.08±0.49 %), and the lowest was registered in horses (0.98±0.11 %). The marginal zone occupies the largest relative area in sheep (6.52±0.98 %), the least – in horses (2.02±0.12 %). The mantle zone and zone near the vessels were better developed in rabbits (3.36±0.76 and 2.41±0.84 %); the red pulp was better developed in chickens (78.30±1.98 %), pigs (78.87±2.36 %) and horses (78.94±4.39 %), while sheep had the lesser developed red pulp (69.99±1.0 %).


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