Morphological and physiological parameters of woody plants under conditions of environmental oil pollution


N.I. Glibovytska, K.B. Karavanovych

The morphological and physiological parameters of woody plants vitality under conditions of the environmental oil pollution are analyzed. The inhibition of investigated plants’ leaves growth, the appearance of necrotic lesions and a decrease in the buffer stability of the assimilation organs’ internal environment of trees under the influence of oil contamination are revealed.
It has been established that Acer platanoides L. has the least buffering potential of leaves among all tree species, which are widely represented in natural and anthropogenic-modified ecosystems and grow under the conditions of the Bytkiv-Babchens’ke oil deposit. After artificial acidification of the homogeneous leaves of Acer platanoides, taken from the zone of the oil deposit influence and the background territory, the displacement of the acidity index was 3.32 and 2.96, respectively.
All tree species under oil contamination conditions are marked by an increase of the leaves’ internal environment acidity comparing with the background area.
Under oil deposit influence Acer platanoides is marked by the presence of the greatest lesions number of the leaf blades-the degree of necrosis is 4.19. The degree of leaf necrosis under the influence of oil pollution of the environment increases in the following row of investigated plants: Salix caprea L. → Betula pendula Roth. → Populus tremula L. → Fagus sylvatica L. → Populus pyramidalis L. → Acer platanoides L.
The destroying of the trees leaf tissue in stressful growth conditions indicates the weakening of the protective properties of the species, reveals their sensitivity to oil pollution. The appearance of necrosis of the "fish skeleton" type in Fagus sylvatica and Acer platanoides is established, which affects 11 and 23% of leaves of these species. The decrease in the leaves’ area of Populus tremula, Fagus sylvatica and Populus pyramidalis is fixed at 55, 40, 20%, respectively.
The greatest value of the fluctuating leaf asymmetry coefficient is characteristic for Fagus sylvatica and Acer platanoides-0,09.
Salix caprea and Betula pendula are identified as the most resistant species to the oil pollution and should be implemented in greening of the technogenically-transformed areas. These species are characterized by high phytoremediation ability and are effective phytomeliorants of the environment.
Fagus sylvatica and Acer platanoides are sensitive and informative phytoindicators of the ecological state of the oil-contaminated environment. These species are recommended for use in fitomonitoring studies to evaluate the quality of the environment.
Populus tremula and Populus pyramidalis are characterized by the average vitality among the studied tree species.

Keywords: Woody plants; bioindicators; bioremediators; stability; oil pollution; environment; morphological and physiological parameters

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