Morphometric comparison between two populations of Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) from Algeria and Turkey


K. Boudjemaa, I. Karaca, M. Biche

The size of California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, 1879) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) is the most reliable indicator in terms of host quality for Aphytis melinus (DeBach, 1959) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) as well as for the efficiency of its biological control. Our study consisted in comparing the cover and body size of each scale developmental stage belonging to two different populations: one from Algeria and the other one from Turkey. The two scale populations were taken from lemon trees during 3 months. We compared measurements between the two localities and also between the plant organs. The larger individuals were those from Algeria. The same results were confirmed through the plant substrate on which scale was fixed: this size variation observed is mainly explained by climatic variations between the two countries and its repercussions on phenology and metabolism of the host plant. In addition, a higher parasitism rate was noticed in the Algerian scale population compared to that of Turkey.

Keywords: Aonidiella aurantii; Size of individuals; Algeria; Turkey; Aphytis melinus



Baker, J. L. (1976). Determinants of host selection for species of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), parasites of diaspine scales. Hilgardia, 44(1), 1-25.

Biche, M., & Sellami, M. (1999). Etude de quelques variations biologiques possibles chez Parlatoria oleae (Colvée)(Homoptera, Diaspididae). Bulletin de la société entomologique de France, 104(3), 287-292.

Biche, M., Siafa, A., Adda, R., & Gherbi, R. (2012). Biologie de Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera, Diaspididae) sur citronnier dans la région de rouiba. Lebanese Science Journal, 13, 59-64.

Desfilis, M. T. P. (2007). Control biológico del piojo rojo de California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)(Hemiptera: Diaspididae) y estrategias reproductivas de su principal enemigo natural Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet)(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) (Doctoral dissertation, Universitat de València).

Forster, L. D., & Luck, R. F. (1996). The role of natural enemies of California red scale in an IPM program in California citrus. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1, 12–17. InB.

Godfray, H.C.J. (1994). Parasitoïdes: écologie comportementale et évolutive (Vol. 67). Presses universitaires de Princeton.

Hare, J. D., & Luck, R. F. (1994). Environmental variation in physical and chemical cues used by the parasitic wasp, Aphytis melinus, for host recognition. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 72(2), 97-108.

Hare, J. D., & Morgan, D. J. W. (2000). CHEMICAL CONSPICUOUSNESS OF AN HERBIVORE TO ITS NATURAL ENEMY: EFFECT OF Feeding Site Selection. Ecology, 81(2), 509-519.

Hare, J. D., Millar, J. G., & Luck, R. F. (1993). A caffeic acid ester mediates host recognition by a parasitic wasp. Naturwissenschaften, 80(2), 92–94.

Hare, J. D., Yu, D. S., & Luck, R. F. (1990). Variation in Life History Parameters of California Red Scale on Different Citrus Cultivars. Ecology, 71(4), 1451-1460.

Karaca, ?. (1998). Parasitization efficacy of Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) as affected by host size and size distribution of Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)(Homoptera: Diaspididae) in a lemon orchard. Turkiye Entomol. Dergisi, 22, 101–108.

Loussert, R. (1985). Les agrumes, vol. 1. Lavoisier, Paris, 113.

Luck, R. F., & Podoler, H. (1985). Competitive Exclusion of Aphytis lingnanensis by A. melinus: Potential Role of Host Size. Ecology, 66(3), 904-913.

Opp, S. B., & Luck, R. F. (1986). Effects of Host Size on Selected Fitness Components of Aphytis melinus and A. lingnanensis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 79(4), 700-704.

Pekas, A. (2011). Factors affecting the biological control of California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) by Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in eastern Spain citrus: host size, ant activity, and adult parasitoid food sources ((PhD Thesis). Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia (Spain).

Pekas, A., Aguilar, A., Tena, A., & Garcia-Marí, F. (2010). Influence of host size on parasitism by Aphytis chrysomphali and A. melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Mediterranean populations of California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Control, 55(2), 132-140.

Pekas, A., Tena, A., Harvey, J. A., Garcia-Marí, F., & Frago, E. (2016). Host size and spatiotemporal patterns mediate the coexistence of specialist parasitoids. Ecology, 97(5), 1345-1356.

Tena, A. & Garcia-Marí, F. (2011). Situation actuelle des ravageurs et maladies des agrumes dans le bassin méditerranéen. IOBC Bull , 62 , 365-368.

Yarpuzlu, F., Öztem?z, S., & Karacaoglu, M. (2008). Natural Enemies and Population Movement of the California Red Scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Homoptera: Diaspididae) with Efficiency of Parasitoid, Aphytis melinus (How.)(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Lemon Orchards. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 10(1), 43-58.

Yu, D. S. (1986). The interactions between California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), and its parasitoids in citrus groves of inland southern California (PhD Thesis). University of California, Riverside.

Yu, D. S., & Luck, R. F. (1988). Temperature-dependent size and development of California red scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its effect on host availability for the ectoparasitoid, Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Environmental Entomology, 17(2), 154–161.

Share this article