Nature conservation areas in Galicia
The first environmental document in the Austrian Empire was the “Statute on Forests”. Since 1870, first attempts had been made to ensure protection of some endangered species of animals and plants, rare objects of animate and inanimate nature. At the beginning of the 20th century, conservation work was carried out by enthusiasts. In 1910, scientists joined environmental activities. The Copernicus Society of Naturalists proposed to establish forest conservation reserves in the Eastern Carpathians and steppe conservation reserves in Podillia. The society also began the inventory of natural sites. An important role in nature conservation activity was played by the Dzieduszycki Museum of Natural History that provided the first description of natural sites. In 1886, W. Dzieduszycki established a beech forest conservation reserve and called it “Pamiatka Peniatska”. In 1928, the League for Nature Protection was founded. The Congress of Polish, Czechoslovakian and Romanian Scientists adopted a resolution to create several conservation reserves along the Dniester valley. On March 10, 1934, the Sejm of the Commonwealth of Poland adopted the Law “On the Protection of Nature“. In 1935, 4 forest conservation reserves were created. In 1936, a conservation reserve was created in the estate of Gołuchowski in Yaniv. 2 natural protected areas were established on the border of Podillia and Volhynia. On October 29, 1921, the Chornohora Conservation Reserve with an area of 447.5 hectares was established thanks to the efforts of professor W. Szafer and doctor Wilczyński. On September 27, 1932, the Directorate of State Forests established the National Park in Chornohora. The area of the park was 1,520.51 hectares. The Congress of Czechoslovakian, Polish and Romanian Scientists adopted a resolution on creation of a border nature park called the “National Park of the Three States”. In 1912-1914, spruce and beech-fir-spruce old-growth forests on the slopes of Pip Iwan Marmarośkij, as well as forest areas on the slopes of Hoverla were taken under protection. In 1914, thickets of European yew in the village of Kniażdwir in Kolomyia district were assigned to the protected territories. After the First World War, their area was 94.1 hectares. The 200-year-old pine forest, the slopes of the mountains of Gnitesa, Polanycia and Komanova, the polonynas between Glystovatyj and Preluky, the pine forest conservation reserve on the mountain Rotundul were also taken under protection. Thanks to professor W. Szafer and the metropolitan of the Greek Catholic Church A. Sheptytsky, the nature reserve “Yaitse” was established in 1934. The first Ukrainian National Park of Nature was created on this territory. The lands of the Lviv metropolitanate of the Greek Catholic Church were the basis for creating the nature reserves “Sosnovyj” and “Bukovyj”, designing the nature reserve “Yalytsevyj”, as well as the hunting reserve “Perehinska Puszcza”.
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