Participatory mangrove forest management in the Carey Island, Malaysia


M. Almasi, P. Milow, R.M. Zakaria

In past 20 years, where there has been widespread degradation of mangroves, there are also cases where communities and governments have successfully restored their degraded mangroves. Researchers have emphasized on participatory models of management in mangrove forests. The present research aims to formulate a participatory management strategy to conserve mangrove forests in the Carey Island, Malaysia. The major management tool is a SWOT matrix analysis. For this purpose, the analysis of the data collected from 31 in-depth interviews with indigenous people living in the area of research as well as the information from the researchers’ observation resulted in identification of a series of internal and external factors in the targeted area in terms of conservation of the mangrove forest. The factors were then scored using a SWOT questionnaire filled by 312 respondents, and later, sixteen strategies were considered using SWOT matrix and pairwise matching for the conservation of the mangrove forests. Later, the Qualitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) was used and four prioritized strategies were determined. As a conclusion, the four prioritized strategies were all related to capacity building, involvement and participation of stakeholders in the process of the mangrove forest conservation. Therefore, mangrove forest management in Carey Island requires a participatory approach in a way that not only the mangrove harvesting would be sustainably controlled, but stakeholders, especially villagers, will be simultaneously empowered and take responsibility of the sustainable conservation of their habitat and its biodiversity.

Keywords: Strategy formulation; strategic planning; sustainable conservation; SWOT method; QSPM

Affandi, N. A. M., Kamali, B., Rozainah, M. Z., Tamin, N. M., & Hashim, R. (2010). Early growth and survival of Avicennia alba seedlings under excessive sedimentation. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(18), 2801-2805.
Albert, J. A., & Schwarz, A.-M. (2013). Mangrove management in Solomon Islands: Case studies from Malaita Province. CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. Policy Brief: AAS-2013-14.
Ali Ahmadi, A. (2007). A Comprehensive Attitude towards Strategic Management. 10th edn. In cooperation with Mehdi Fathollah, and Iraj Tajeddin. Tehran: Knowledge Production Publication (Entesharat Toolid-e Danesh).
Almasi, M., Pakzadmanesh, P., & Ameri, M. A. (2011). Formulation of Management Strategy for Persian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus onager) in Touran Biosphere Reserve. Paper presented at the Proceedings of International Conference on Environmental Aspects of Bangladesh.
Azarnivand, A., & Banihabib, M. (2013). The Identification of Effective Factors of Strategic Implementation in Water Resources Management (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin). Desert, 18(2), 177-183.
Baby, S. (2013). AHP Modeling for Multicriteria Decision-Making and to Optimise Strategies for Protecting Coastal Landscape Resources. International Journal of Innovation, 218-227.
Badola, R., Barthwal, S., Hussain, S. A. (2012). Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 96:188-196
Bagherian, R., Samah, B. A., Samah, A. A., & Ahmad, S. (2009). A social exchange approach to people's participation in watershed management programs in Iran.
Banihabib, M. E., Hashemi, F., & Shabestari, M. H. (2016). A Framework for Sustainable Strategic Planning of Water Demand and Supply in Arid Regions. Sustainable Development.
Baycheva-Merger, T., & Wolfslehner, B. (2016). Evaluating the implementation of the Pan-European Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management–A SWOT analysis. Ecological Indicators, 60, 1192-1199.
Blankespoor, B., Dasgupta, S., & Lange, G.-M. (2016). Mangroves as a protection from storm surges in a changing climate. Ambio, 1-14.
Budiasa, I. W., & Kato, H. (2016). A Participatory Approach to Enhance Multistakeholders’ Participation in the Saba River Basin Sustainable Water Management (pp. 67-80): Springer.
Bull, J., Jobstvogt, N., Böhnke-Henrichs, A., Mascarenhas, A., Sitas, N., Baulcomb, C., & Zähringer, J. (2016). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats: A SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework. Ecosystem services, 17, 99-111.
Butarbutar, R. R., Purnomo, M., Hakim, L., & Rochdjatun, S. (2014). Strategic development of nature tourism based on plant species at the Mahawu mountainous region, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), 5(5), 241-252.
Chang, H. H., & Huang, W. C. (2006). Application of a quantification SWOT analytical method. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 43(1), 158-169.
Cole, D. H., Ostrom, E., 2011. The variety of property systems and rights in natural resources. Property in land and other resources, 37-Comino, E., & Ferretti, V. (2016). Indicators-based spatial SWOT analysis: Supporting the strategic planning and management of complex territorial systems. Ecological Indicators, 60, 1104-1117.
DasGupta, R., & Shaw, R. (2017a). Participatory Mangrove Management in a Changing Climate: Perspectives from the Asia-Pacific: Springer.
DasGupta, R., & Shaw, R. (2017b). Retrofitting Joint Forest Management (JFM) in Protected Areas of Indian Sundarbans: How Sustainable It Is? Participatory Mangrove Management in a Changing Climate (pp. 59-71): Springer.
Datta D, Chattopadhyay R, Guha P (2012) Community based mangrove management: a review on status and sustainability Journal of environmental management 107:84-95
David, M. E., David, F. R., & David, F. R. (2009). The Quantitative Strategic Planning matrix (QSPM) applied to a retail computer store. The Coastal Business Journal, 8(1), 42-52.
Delavar, M. A. (2007). Research and Methodology. Tehran: Nashre Virayesh.
Devitt, C., Boyle, L., Teixeira, D., O’Connell, N., Hawe, M., & Hanlon, A. (2016). Stakeholder perspectives on the use of pig meat inspection as a health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; a SWOT analysis. Irish veterinary journal, 69(1), 17.
Dilmaghani, Y., Danehkar, A., Jozi, S. A., & Arjomandi, R. (2011). Codification of mangrove forests management strategies: Case study of Hara Protected Area, Iran. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment, 9(2), 508-513.
Garcia, K. B., Malabrigo Jr, P. L., & Gevaña, D. T. (2014). Philippines’ Mangrove Ecosystem: Status, Threats and Conservation Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia (pp. 81-94): Springer.
Ghorbani, A., Raufirad, V., Rafiaani, P., & Azadi, H. (2015). Ecotourism sustainable development strategies using SWOT and QSPM model: A case study of Kaji Namakzar Wetland, South Khorasan Province, Iran. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 290-297.
Gill S, Ross W, Panya O (2009) Moving beyond rhetoric: the need for participatory forest management with the Jakun of South-East Pahang, Malaysia J Trop For Sci 21
Groninger, J. W. (2016). Building Watershed Management Capacity in Nigeria: Expanding the Role of Agriculture Colleges. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 158(1), 78-84.
Grošelj, P., Hodges, D. G., & Stirn, L. Z. (2016). Participatory and multi-criteria analysis for forest (ecosystem) management: A case study of Pohorje, Slovenia. Forest Policy and Economics, 71, 80-86.
Ha, T. T. P., van Dijk, H., and Visser, L. (2014). Impacts of changes in mangrove forest management practices on forest accessibility and livelihood: A case study in mangrove-shrimp farming system in Ca Mau Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Land Use Policy, 36(0), 89-101. doi:
He, B., Li, R., Chai, M., and Qiu, G. (2014). Threat of heavy metal contamination in eight mangrove plants from the Futian mangrove forest, China. Environmental geochemistry and health, 36(3), 467-476.
Hema, M., & Devi, P. (2013). Socioeconomic Impacts of the Community-based Management of the Mangrove Reserve in Kerala, India. Journal of Environmental Professionals Sri Lanka, 1(2).
Hosseini Nasab, H., & Milani, A. S. (2012). An improvement of quantitative strategic planning matrix using multiple criteria decision making and fuzzy numbers. Applied Soft Computing, 12(8), 2246-2253.
Iftekhar, M.S., 2008. An overview of mangrove management strategies in three South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka. International Forestory Review 10, 38-51.
Jia, M., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., Ren, C., & Song, K. (2015). Landsat-Based estimation of mangrove forest loss and restoration in Guangxi Province, China, influenced by human and natural factors. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 8(1), 311-323.
Kathiresan, K., & Bingham, B. L. (2001). Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in marine biology, 40, 81-251.
Kazana, V., Kazaklis, A., Stamatiou, C., Koutsona, P., Boutsimea, A., & Fotakis, D. (2015). SWOT analysis for sustainable forest policy and management: a Greek case study. International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences, 7(1), 32-50.
Kumar, P., & Kant, S. (2016). Revealed social preferences and joint forest management outcomes. Forest Policy and Economics, 72, 37-45.
Lee, S. Y., Primavera, J. H., Dahdouh‐Guebas, F., McKee, K., Bosire, J. O., Cannicci, S., & Marchand, C. (2014). Ecological role and services of tropical mangrove ecosystems: a reassessment. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23(7), 726-743.
Liingilie, A. S., Kilawe, C., Kimaro, A., Rubanza, C., & Jonas, E. (2015). Effects of salt making on growth and stocking of mangrove forests of south western Indian Ocean coast in Tanzania. Mediterranean Journal of Biosciences, 1(1), 27-31.
MacDicken, K. G., Sola, P., Hall, J. E., Sabogal, C., Tadoum, M., & de Wasseige, C. (2015). Global progress toward sustainable forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 352, 47-56.
Madsen, D. Ø. (2016). SWOT Analysis: A Management Fashion Perspective.
Marino, E., Hernando, C., Planelles, R., Madrigal, J., Guijarro, M., & Sebastián, A. (2014). Forest fuel management for wildfire prevention in Spain: a quantitative SWOT analysis. International journal of wildland fire, 23(3), 373-384.
Memon, J.A., Thapa, G.B., 2016. Explaining the de facto open access of public property commons: Insights from the Indus Delta mangroves. Environmental Science & Policy 66, 151-159.
Mohammed, A. J., Inoue, M., & Shivakoti, G. (2017). Moving forward in collaborative forest management: Role of external actors for sustainable Forest socio-ecological systems. Forest Policy and Economics, 74, 13-19.
Monavari, S. M., Khorasani, N., & Mirsaeed, S. S. G. (2013). Delphi-based strategic planning for tourism management–a case study. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22(2), 465-473.
Nehru, P., & Balasubramanian, P. (2016). Re-colonizing mangrove species in tsunami devastated habitats at Nicobar Islands, India. Check List, 7(3), 253-256.
Nguyen, H.-H. (2014). The relation of coastal mangrove changes and adjacent land-use: A review in Southeast Asia and Kien Giang, Vietnam. Ocean & Coastal Management,90(0),1-10.doi:
Noor, T., Batool, N., Mazhar, R., & Ilyas, N. (2015). Effects of siltation, temperature and salinity on mangrove plants. Eur Aca Res, 2, 14172-14179.
Nourbakhsh, S. Z., Shahba, S., & Mozafari, M. (2013). Using SWOT Analysis and QSPM Matrix for Developing and Evaluating Strategies of Ecotourism. Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2(9).
On-prom, S. (2014). Community-Based Mangrove Forest Management in Thailand: Key Lesson Learned for Environmental Risk Management. In N. Kaneko, S. Yoshiura, & M. Kobayashi (Eds.), Sustainable Living with Environmental Risks (pp. 87-96): Springer Japan.
Ostrom, E., Gardner, R., Walker, J., 1994. Rules, games, and common-pool resources. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Padash, A., Jozi, S., Nabavi, S., & Dehzad, B. (2016). Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 2(1), 49-60.
Parsayan, A., & Aarabi, M. (2009). Strategic Management. 6th.Ed. Tehran: Cultural Studies Office.
Pinyopusarerk, K., & Tran, T. T. H. (2014). Making community forest management work in northern Vietnam by pioneering participatory action. Land Use Policy, 38, 257-263.
Ramli, R., & Fauzi, A. (2016). Nesting biology of Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus caeruleus) in oil palm landscape in Carey Island, Peninsular Malaysia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences.
Rasolofoson, R. A., Ferraro, P. J., Jenkins, C. N., & Jones, J. P. (2015). Effectiveness of Community Forest Management at reducing deforestation in Madagascar. Biological Conservation, 184, 271-277.
Reihanian, A., Mahmood, N. Z. B., Kahrom, E., & Hin, T. W. (2012). Sustainable tourism development strategy by SWOT analysis: Boujagh National Park, Iran. Tourism Management Perspectives, 4, 223-228.
Richards, D. R., & Friess, D. A. (2016). Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(2), 344-349.
Roy, A. K. D., & Gow, J. (2015). Attitudes towards current and alternative management of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh to achieve sustainability. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 58(2), 213-228.
Rozainah, M., Affandi, N., & Noraini, M. (2014). Relationship between mangrove seedling growth, nutrients and heavy metal concentrations in soil at carey island, selangor, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science, 33(2), 141-149.
Saraswathy, R., Rozainah, M., & Redzwan, G. (2009). Diversity and biomass estimation of mangrove trees on carey Island, Malaysia. Ecology, Environment and Conservation, 15(2), 205-211.
Scales, I., Friess, D., Glass, L., & Ravaoarinorotsihoarana, L. (2017). Rural livelihoods and mangrove degradation in southwestern Madagascar: Lime production as an emerging threat.
Scheba, A., & Mustalahti, I. (2015). Rethinking ‘expert’knowledge in community forest management in Tanzania. Forest Policy and Economics, 60, 7-18.
Scolozzi, R., Schirpke, U., Morri, E., D'Amato, D., & Santolini, R. (2014). Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 543-551.
Segura, M., Ray, D., & Maroto, C. (2014). Decision support systems for forest management: A comparative analysis and assessment. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 101, 55-67.
SGP-Malaysia (2012). Partners in sustainable development: Empowering Civil Societies Through SGP Malaysia vol 1. UNDP/GEF-SGP Malaysia, Malaysia.
Siraj, M., Zhang, K., Xiao, W., Bilal, A., Gemechu, S., Geda, K., Terfe, Y., & Xiaodan, L. (2016). Does Participatory Forest Management Save the Remnant Forest in Ethiopia? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 1-14.
Siti, Y., Khairudin, H., & Mohd, S. (2009). Biodiversity Conservation in Oil Palm Industry-A Case Study in Carey Island. Biodiversity and National Development: Achievements, Opportunities And Challenges.
Taena, W., Kolopaking, L. M., Juanda, B., Barus, B., & Boer, R. (2016). An Institutional Model of Transboundary Watershed Management Toward Sustainable Development. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 22(1), 35-46.
Takahashi, R., & Todo, Y. (2012). Impact of Community-Based Forest Management on Forest Protection: Evidence from an Aid-Funded Project in Ethiopia. Environmental Management, 50(3), 396-404. doi:10.1007/s00267-012-9887-5
Wadsworth, R. M., Criddle, K., & Kruse, G. H. (2014). Incorporating stakeholder input into marine research priorities for the Aleutian Islands. Ocean & Coastal Management, 98, 11-19.
Walters, B. B., Rönnbäck, P., Kovacs, J. M., Crona, B., Hussain, S. A., Badola, R., Primavera, J. H., Barbier, E., & Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2008). Ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 220-236.
Yamaki, K. (2016). Role of social networks in urban forest management collaboration: A case study in northern Japan. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 18, 212-220.
Yavuz, F., & Baycan, T. (2013). Use of swot and analytic hierarchy process integration as a participatory decision making tool in watershed management. Procedia Technology, 8, 134-143.
Yenil, H. U., & Taner, T. (2014). The River Management Modelling For Ecology. American Journal of Water Resources, 2(3), 71-73.
Yong, H. S. (2009). Biodiversity and National Development: Achievements, Opportunities, and Challenges : Proceedings of the Conference Held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 28-30 May 2008: Academy of Sciences Malaysia.


Share this article