Phenotypic regulation of animal skeletal muscle protein metabolism
K.T. Erimbetov, O.V. Obvintseva A.V. Fedorova, R.A. Zemlyanoy, A.G. Solovieva
This review highlights the current state of phenotypic mechanisms of regulation of muscle protein metabolism in animals. Since the skeletal muscle represents 40–50% of body mass in mammals it is a critical regulator of overall metabolism. Therefore, an understanding of the processes involved in the postnatal increase in muscle mass, with associated accumulation of protein, is fundamental. Throughout life, a delicate balance exists between protein synthesis and degradation that is essential for growth and normal health of humans and animals. Signaling pathways coordinate muscle protein balance. Anabolic and catabolic stimuli are integrated through the PKB/Akt-mTORC1 signaling to regulate mechanisms that control muscle protein synthesis and breakdown. At an early periods of intensive growth, muscle mass is stimulated by an increase in protein synthesis at the level of mRNA translation. Throughout the life, proteolytic processes including autophagy lysosomal system, ubiquitin proteasome pathway, calcium-dependent calpains and cysteine protease caspase enzyme cascade influence the growth of muscle mass. Several signal transmission networks direct and coordinate these processes along with quality control mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Genetic factors, hormones, amino acids, phytoecdysteroids, and rhodanines affect the protein metabolism via signaling pathways, changing the ability and / or efficiency of muscle growth.
Keywords: autophagy; proteasomes; muscle protein metabolism; proteomics; metabolomics; phytoecdysteroids; amino acids; rhodanine derivative
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