Potential adaptation of Ginkgo biloba- comparative analysis of plants from China and Ukraine


I.M. Kovalenko, G.O. Klymenko, S.D. Melnychuk, Iu.L. Skliar, O.S. Melnyk, K.S. Kyrylchuk, L.M. Bondarieva, I.V. Zubtsova, R.A. Yaroshchuk, S.V. Zherdetska

Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest relict plants in the existing seed plants. It is a historical heritage and living fossil. It is a world natural heritage unimaginable by human beings and a milestone in revealing nature's mysteries. The primary study areas with G. biloba plants are located in North-East Ukraine (Sumy region). A comparative analysis of the condition of seedlings in 2018 and 2019 was conducted. The plants were examined for the following morphological parameters: plant height, annual growth size, shoot diameter at the base, and the number of leaves. In two variants, about 100 plants were examined. The vitality analysis of seedlings with the establishment of their quality index is carried out. Studies of G. biloba leaves' morphological parameters from artificial plantations in Ukraine (Sumy) and natural plantations of China from the province were also carried out. Zhejiang province covers an area of 105,500 square kilometers and is located on the southeast coast of China. 118°01'-123°10'E bounds Zhejiang Province, 27°02'-31°11' N, east of the East China Sea, north of Shanghai, which is China's largest city, and Qiantang River is the largest river in Zhejiang. Its climate is Subtropical monsoon. The average annual rainfall is 980-2 000 mm, the average annual sunshine is 1710-2100 hours, and the average annual temperature is 15-18 °C. We selected three G. biloba groups for investigation and data collection. These three places are located west of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province, about 5 kilometers apart. The G. biloba tree group in Guanshan, Lingshanwu, and Wuxie Village Zhejiang Province, China, were measured in 2019. The age of the trees ranges from 20 years to 500 years. The height is generally more than 15 meters, and the breast diameter is more than 20 cm. In order to ensure the randomness of the data, we choose a tree every 50 meters. Studies have shown a statistically significant difference between leaves from China and Ukraine. Simultaneously, the leaf blade's size was more extensive in the leaves of G. biloba from artificial plantations in Ukraine. Morphometric analysis of G. biloba plantations (Ukraine) showed statistically significant differences between plant morphological parameters in 2018 compared to 2019, which indicates the intensity of growth and the positive trends in plants' vegetative growth mass. Plant height increased from 26.68 ± 1.01 cm in 2018 to 40.07 ± 1.72 cm in 2019, the annual increase, respectively, from 10.34 ± 0.89 to 13.90 ± 0.92. Such an indicator as the shoot diameter at the base has tripled (from 0.42 ± 0.02 cm in 2018 to 1.41 ± 0.02 cm in 2019). Differences between all morphological parameters have high statistical reliability (from 0.01 to 0.001). The differences were confirmed by the results of vitality analysis, which showed an increase in plant quality and their transition from equilibrium in 2018 (Q = 0.300) to prosperous in 2019 (Q = 0.465), which indicates optimal growth conditions and confirms the possibility of growing G. biloba plantation method for obtaining medicinal raw materials in North-East Ukraine.

Keywords: relict plant, morphometric analysis, medicinal raw materials, cultivation technology



Badore, N. S., Das, P. K., Pillai, S., & Thakur, A. (2017). Role of Ginkgo biloba extract, against isoproterenol induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51(4), 691–699.

Cai, J., Zhao, P., & Liu, J. (2018). Ginkgo tree planting technology and management measures. Modern Rural Science and Technology.

Cao, F. (2007). Chinese Ginkgo biloba. Chinese Forestry Publishing House (in Chinese).

Chauhan, J. M. S., & Maneesh, S. B. (2019). Effect of hormonal concentration on rooting behavior of Ginkgo biloba L. in agro-climatic zone of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Tropical Plant Research, 6(2), 306–311. doi: 10.22271/tpr.2019.v6.i2.039

Chen, Y. (2013). The Value of Ginkgo and Its Seedling Breeding Technology. Modern Agricultural Science and Technology, 13, 191-192.

Chinese Flora Committee of CAS. (2006). Chinese Flora. Volume 7. Ginkgo. Science Press, Gazebo.

Ding, J. (1996). Harvesting and Storage of Ginkgo Fruit. Yunnan Agricultural Science and Technology, 4, 47-48.

Gopichand, R. L. M. (2015). Standardization of propagation and agro techniques in Ginkgo biloba L. – a medicinally important plant. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 3(4), 6-15. doi: 10.22271/tpr.2019.v6.i2.039.

Guo, J., Wu, Y., Wang, B., Lu, Y., Cao, F., & Wang, G. (2016). The effects of fertilization on the growth and physiological characteristics of Ginkgo biloba L. forests, 7(293), 3-14. doi.org/10.3390/f7120293.

Heinonen, T., & Gaus, W. (2015). Cross matching observations on toxicological and clinical data for the assessment of tolerability and safety of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Toxicology, 327, 95–115. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2014.10.013.

Jacobs, B. P., & Browner, W. S. (2000). Ginkgo biloba: A Living Fossil. The American Journal of Medicine, 108, 341–342. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00290-4.

Kovalenko I. M., Klymenko G. ??., Yaroschuk R. ?., Fedorchuk ??. ??., Lykholat O. A. (2018). Optimization of Ginkgo biloba cultivation technology in open soil conditions. Regul. Mech. Biosyst., 9(4), 535–539. doi: 10.15421/021880

Kovalenko, I. M., Klymenko, H. O., Yaroshchuk, R. A., & Su, Y. (2019). Osoblyvosti vitalitetnoi struktury nasadzhen Ginkgo biloba L. v umovakh Pivnichnoho Skhodu Ukrainy [Features of vitality structure of Ginkgo biloba L. plantations in the conditions of the North-East of Ukraine]. Ahronomiia i Biolohiia, 4(38), 66–71 (in Ukrainian).

Krauss, P., Tziridis, K., Buerbank, S., Schilling, A., & Schulze, H. (2016). Therapeutic value of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761® in an animal model (Meriones unguiculatus) for noise trauma induced hearing loss and tinnitus. PLoS ONE, 11(6), e0157574. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157574

Li, H.L. (1956). A horticultural and botanical history of Ginkgo. Morris Arboretum Bulletin, 7, 3-12.

Mahadevan, S., & Park, Y. (2008). Multifaceted Therapeutic Bene?ts of Ginkgo biloba L.: Chemistry, Ef?cacy, Safety, and Uses. Journal of food Science, 73(1), 14-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00597.x.

Mohanta, T. K., Tamboli, Y., & Zubaidha, P. K. (2014). Phytochemical and medicinal importance of Ginkgo biloba L. Natural product research, 28(10), 746–752. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2013.879303.

Rimkiene, L., Kubiliene, A., Zevzikovas, F., Kazlauskiene, D., & Jakstas, V. (2017). Variation in flavonoid composition and radical-scavenging activity in Ginkgo biloba L. due to the growth location and time of harvest. Journal of Food Quality, ID 6840397. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6840397.

Schmid, W., & Balz, J. P. (2003). Cultivation of Ginkgo biloba L. on three continents. III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2, 177-180. doi: 10.17660/actahortic.2005.676.23.

Seward, A.C. (1938). The story of the maidenhair tree. Science Progress, 32(127), 420-440.

Shi, J. (1992). Preliminary study on ecological characteristics of Ginkgo biloba. Journal of Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, 3, 48-52.

Singh, B., Kaur, P., Gopichand, R. L. M., Singh, R. D., & Ahuja, P. S. (2008). Biology and chemistry of Ginkgo biloba. Fitoterapia, 79(6), 401–418. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2008.05.007.

Su, Y., & Klymenko, H. (2019). Ginkgo biloba L. in China. Materials of NPK of teachers, graduate students and students of SNAU, 28.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (2018). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available from: https://www.iucnredlist.org/

Xing, S., Zhang, Q., Fu, Z., Liu, L., Liu, X., Xin, H., & Wu, Q. (2013). Ontogenesis and systematics implications of Ginkgo biloba Chichi. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 49(8), 108-116.

Xu, J. (2001). Zhejiang Ancient Ginkgo. National Land and Green Journal, 2, 30-31.

Yaroshchuk, R. A. (2016). Perspektyvy vyroshchuvannia Ginkgo biloba L. v umo-vakh pivnichno-skhidnoho lisostepu Ukrajiny dlia zahotivli lystia u farmatsev-tychnykh tsiliakh [Prospects of cultivation of Ginkgo biloba L. in the conditions of the North-Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine for harvesting leaves for phar-maceutical purposes]. Ahronomiia i Biolohiia, 32, 124–128 (in Ukrainian).

Yoshikawa, T., Naito, Y., & Kondo, M. (1999). Ginkgo biloba leaf extract: review of biological actions and clinical applications. Antioxidants and redox signaling, 1(4), 469-480. doi: 10.1089/ars.1999.1.4-469.

Zhao, Y., Paule, J., Fu, C., & Koch, M. A. (2010). Out of China: Distribution history of Ginkgo biloba L. Taxon, 59 (2), 495–504. doi: 10.1002/tax.592014

Zlobin, Ju. A., Skljar, V. G., & Klimenko, A. A. (2013). Populjacii redkih vidov rastenij: teoreticheskie osnovy i metodika izuchenija [Populations of rare plant species: theoretical foundations and methods of study]. Universitetskaja kniga, Sumy. (in Russian).

Share this article