Probability of Radon cancer occurrence in Rivne city residents (Ukraine), calculation by WISMUT and Radon-2014 models
O.O. Lebed, L.V. Klymenko, V.S. Trotsyuk, V.A. Hulchuk, A.V. Lysytsya
The aim of the study: Inhaling 222Rn present in the premises on the part of the population may provoke the development of cancer of the respiratory tract. This study assessed the risk of morbidity from lung cancer and the mortality of residents of Rivne, Ukraine, due to exposure to internal radioactive irradiation.
Methods: The biological model of the human respiratory tract was used and, based on it; the physical models of the additional relative risk of morbidity from lung cancer of the population of urban areas due to Radon were constructed.
The constructed models include the model BEIR VI in two variants (TSE/AGE/DUR and TSE/AGE/WL), models WISMUT and Radon-2014.
Results: The geometrical mean of volume activity VA of Radon in the premises of the city of Rivne we measured equals 200 Bq/m3. It corresponds to the value of the average exposure to Radon equal to 1.392 WLM/year. In the framework of the model TSE/AGE/DUR, it is determined that residing in such the premises on the part of the population of the city of Rivne throughout life (70 years) results in the 16% increase in the risk of morbidity from lung cancer. If the models TSE/AGE/WL, WISMUT, and Radon-2014 are used, the morbidity equals respectively 25%, 10%, and 7%.
Conclusion: This research is the first estimation of the risk of morbidity and mortality from cancers of trachea, bronchi, and lungs due to exposure to Radon in the city of Rivne performed in the frameworks of the models WISMUT and Radon-2014. The quantity of the deaths of the residents of the city of Rivne with lung cancer due to exposure to Radon in the premises of the city depends on the uncertain dependence of the effect on the dose and ranges from 5 to 128 persons per year for the males and from 1 to 23 people per year for females. This is from 3 to 64% of all lung cancer deaths per year due to all causes during the study period for males and from 3 to 77% for females. Such the research should be extended to other regions of Ukraine as the Radon problem is a matter of serious concern to the European Community and the World Health Organization.
Keywords: Radon; Additional relative risk; Exposition; Lung cancer
Brugmans, M.J.P., Rispens, S.M., Bijwaard, H., Laurier, D., Rogel, A., Tomásek, L., Tirmarche, M. (2004). Radon-induced lung cancer in French and Czech miner cohorts described with a two-mutation cancer model. Radiat. Environ. Biophys., 43, 153–163. doi: 10.1007/s00411-004-0247-6
Catelinois, О., Rogel, А., Laurier, D., Billon, S., Hemon, D., Verger, P., Tirmarche, M. (2006). Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposure in France: Impact of the Risk Models and Uncertainty Analysis. Environ Health Perspect, 114(9), 1361–1366. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9070.
Darby, S., Hill, D., Deo, H., Auvinen, A., Barros-Dios, J.M., Baysson, H., Bochicchio, F., et al. (2006). Residential Radon and lung cancer-detailed results of a collaborative analysis of individual data on 7,148 persons with lung cancer and 14,208 persons without lung cancer from 13 epidemiologic studies in Europe. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 32(S.1), 1-83. Available at: http://www.sjweh.fi/show_abstract.php?abstract_id=982
Demin, V.F., Zhukovsky, M.V., Ivanov, S.I., Yarmoshenko, I.V. (2011). Modified model of health risk assessment from inhaled Radon. Medical radiology and radiation safety, 56(5), 21-30. [in Russian]. Available at: http://medradiol.ru/journal_medradiol/abstracts/2011/5/5-2011.pdf
Demin, V.F., Zhukovsky, M.V., Kiselev, S.M. (2015). Risk from the effects of Radon on human health: assessment methods and practical applications. Atomic Energy, 118(1), 42–46. [in Russian]. Available at: http://www.j-atomicenergy.ru/index.php/ae/article/view/803/782
Effects of Ionizing Radiation: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2006 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes – Vol. II. Annex E («Sources-to-effects assessment for Radon in homes and workplaces») // UNSCEAR. – 2009. Available at: https://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2006_2.html
EPA assessment of risks from Radon in homes. Report EPA 402-R-03-003 // US Environmental Protection Agency. – Washington, DC: June, 2003. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-05/documents/402-r-03-003.pdf
Exposure from Natural Radiation Sources. Report: Annex B // United Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, New York. – 2000. Available at: https://www.unscear.org/docs/publications/2000/UNSCEAR_2000_Annex-B.pdf
Grosche, B., Kreuzer, M., Kreisheimer, M., Schnelzer, M., Tschense, A. (2006). Lung cancer risk among German male uranium miners: a cohort study, 1946–1998. Br J Cancer, 95(9), 1280–1287. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603403
Handbook on Indoor Radon: A Public Health Perspective / edited by Hajo Zeeb, and Ferid Shannoun. // World Health Organisation (WHO). – Geneva: WHO Press. – 2009. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44149/9789241547673_eng.pdf;jsessionid=B684F6A32E06B26EBFE95999153E2362?sequence=1
ICRP (1995). Protection against Radon-222 in residential buildings and workplaces. ICRP Publication 65 // ICRP. – M.: Energoatomizdat. – 1995.
ICRP, 2015. Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides: Part 1. ICRP Publication 130. Ann. ICRP 44(2). Available at: https://www.icrp.org/publication.asp?id=ICRP%20Publication%20130
Indoor Air Quality Research: Report on a WHO Meeting, 27–31 August 1984, Stockholm // World Health Organization, Copenhagen: WHO. – 1986.
Kim, S.-H., Hwang, W.J., Cho, J.-S., Kang, D.R. (2016). Attributable risk of lung cancer deaths due to indoor Radon exposure. – Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 28:8. – рр. 1-7. doi: 10.1186/s40557-016-0093-4.
Kiselev, S.M., Zhukovsky, M.V., Stamat, I.P., Yarmoshenko, I.V. (2016). Radon: From basic research to regulatory practice. Moscow: Publishing house “FSBI SSC FMBC the A.I. Burnazyan FMBA of Russia", 2016. – 432 р. [in Russian]. Available at: https://docplayer.ru/75355176-S-m-kiselev-m-v-zhukovskiy-i-p-stamat-i-v-yarmoshenko-Radon-ot-fundamentalnyh-issledovaniy-k-praktike-regulirovaniya.html
Krewski, D., Lubin, J.H., Zielinski, J.M. [et al.] (2006). A combined analysis of North American case–control studies of residential Radon and lung cancer. J. Toxicol. Environ. – Health Part A, 69(7), 533–597. doi: 10.1080/15287390500260945
Lane, R.S.D., Frost, S.E., Howe, G.R., Zablotska, L.B. (2010). Mortality (1950–1999) and Cancer Incidence (1969–1999) in the Cohort of Eldorado Uranium Workers. Radiation Research, 174, 773–785. doi: 10.1667/RR2237.1
Lebed, O.O., Voloshkina, О.S., Myslinchuk, V.O., Shchuryk, V.O., Lysytsya, A.V. (2019). Comparison of Cohort and Ecological Research of Radon Influence on Oncological Diseases of the Rivne City Residents (Ukraine). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(4), 552-560. doi: 10.15421/2019_789.
Lebed, O.O., Klymenko, M.O., Lysytsya, A.V., Myslinchuk, V.O. (2018). Effect of Radon on oncological morbidity of the population: comparative analysis of some region of Ukraine and France. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 585-595. [in Ukrainian]. doi: 10.15421/2017_253.
Lebed, O.O., Lysytsya, A.V., Myslinchuk, V.O., Pryshchepa, A.M., Dejneka, O.Y. (2018). Measurement of Radon concentration in soil gas of the city of Rivne (Ukraine). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(4), 158-164. Available at: https://www.ujecology.com/articles/measurement-of-Radon-concentration-in-soil-gas-of-the-city-of-rivne-ukraine.pdf
Lebed, O.O., Myslinchuk, V.O., Trusheva, S.S., Mandyhra, Y.M., Lysytsya, A.V. (2018). Radon in the spring water of the Zdolbuniv Region, Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(3), 82-89. [in Ukrainian]. Available at: https://www.ujecology.com/articles/Radon-in-the-spring-water-of-the-zdolbuniv-region-ukraine.pdf
Lebed, O.O., Pryshchepa, A.M., Klymenko, O.M., Kovalchuk, N.S. (2018). Determination of oncological disease risks caused by Radon in urban ecosystems of Rivne. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(4), 175-182. Available at: https://www.ujecology.com/articles/determination-of-oncological-disease-risks-caused-by-Radon -in-urban-ecosystems-of-rivne.pdf
Lebed, O.O., Trusheva, S.S., Lysytsya, A.V. (2019). Impact of Radon exposure upon dynamics of mortality rate from lung cancer for population of Rivne city, Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(1), 25-34. Available at: https://www.ujecology.com/articles/impact-of-Radon-exposure-upon-dynamics-of-mortality-rate-from-lung-cancer-for-population-of-rivne-city-ukraine.pdf
Leenhouts, H.P., Brugmans, M.J. (2001). Calculation of the 1995 lung cancer incidence n The Netherlands and Sweden caused by smoking and Radon: risk implications for Radon. Radiat Environ Biophys., 40, 11–21. doi: 10.1007/s004110000084
Lubin, J.H, Boice, Jr.J.D, Edling, C., Hornung, R.W, Howe, G., Kunz, E., Kusiak, R.A., Morrison, H.I., Radford, E.P., Samet, J.M., Tirmarche, M., Woodward, A., Yao, S.X., Pierce, D.A. (1994). Radon and Lung-cancer Risk: A Joint analysis of 11 underground miners studies. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 94-3644. Washington, D.C. Department of Health and Human Services.
Lubin, J.H. Wang, Z.Y., Boice, Jr.J.D., Xu, Z.Y., Blot, W.J., De Wang, L., Kleinerman, R.A. (2004). Risk of lung cancer and residential Radon in China: pooled results of two studies. Int. J. Cancer, 109(1), 132–137. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11683
Lundin, F.E., Wagoner, J.K., Archer, V.E. (1971). Radon daughter exposure and respiratory cancer: Quantitative and temporal aspects. Joint Monograph No. 1. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. (USA).
Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans: Manmade Fibres and Radon. IARC 43. International Agency for Research on Cancer // IARC. – Lyon. – 1988.
National Research Council. Health effects of exposure to Radon, BEIR VI. Committee on Health Risks of Exposure to Radon (BEIR VI). Board on Radiation Effects Research, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.
The risk of appearing on the part of lung cancer in the one who is exposed to Radon and its DPD. The statement with regard to Radon / Editors: M.V. Zhukovskii, S.M. Kiseleva, A.T. Gubina / trans. Publication 115 MKRZ // ICRP. – Moscow: Publishing House «FGBU GNTS Burnasyan FMBTS FMBA of Russia». – 2013.
Tomasek, L. (2014). Effect of age at exposure in 11 underground miners studies. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 160(1-3), 120–123. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncu068
Tomášek, L. Rogel, A., Tirmarche, M., Mitton, N., Laurier, D. (2008). Lung cancer in French and Czech uranium miners – risk atlow exposure rates and modifying effects of time since exposure and age at exposure. Radiat. Res., 169(2), 125-137. doi: 10.1667/RR0848.1
UNSCEAR 1993 REPORT. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation // United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, 1993 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. – United Nations: New York. – 1993. Available at: https://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/1993.html
Van Dillen, T., Dekkers, F., Bijwaard, H., Kreuzer, M., Grosche, B. (2011). Lung Cancer from Radon: A Two-Stage Model Analysis of the WISMUT Cohort, 1955–1998. Radiation Research, 175(1), 119-130. doi: 10.1667/RR2102.1
Walsh, L., Dufey, F., Mohner, M., Schnelzer, M., Tschense, A., Kreuzer, M. (2011). Differences in baseline lung cancer mortality between the German uranium miners cohort and the population of the former German Democratic Republic (1960–2003). Rad. Environ. Biophys., 50(1), 57–66. doi: 10.1007/s00411-010-0332-y
Walsh, L., Tschense, A., Schnelze, M., Dufey, F., Grosche, B., Kreuzer, M. (2010). The Influence of Radon Exposures on Lung Cancer Mortality in German Uranium Miners, 1946–2003. Radiation Research, 173(1), 79-90. doi: 10.1667/RR1803.1.
WHO handbook on indoor Radon: a public health perspective. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. Available at: http://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/env/9789241547673/en
Yarmoshenko, I.V., Kirdin, I.A., Zhukovsky, M.V., Astrakhantseva, S.Y. (2005). Meta-analysis of twenty Radon and lung cancer case control studies. Radioactivity in the environment, 7, 762–771. doi: 10.1016/S1569-4860(04)07095-0
Zhukovsky, M.V., Yarmoshenko, I.V. (1997). Radon: measurement, dose, risk assessment. Ekaterinburg.– UrO RAN. – 232 р. [in Russian].