Quality of raw material from camomile inflorescences depending on technological factors
T.O. Padalko, M.I. Bakhmat, O.V. Ovcharuk, O.P. Horodyska
Our primary task was to study the agrobiological features of the cultivation of chamomile plants in the Right Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, mostly used in official and folk medicine among medicinal plants presence of various biologically active substances. Studies with samples of chamomile plants were conducted during 2017-2020 in the research field of IE "Prudyvus" branch of the Department of Plant Breeding and Forage Production of Podilsky State Agrarian Technical University according to the method of Kalenska (2016), Yeshchenko (2005). To determine the quality of the essential oil content used the TLC method; statistical - to assess the data's reliability. The research results show that the quality of raw material yield of chamomile on the content of biologically active substances depends on the genetic characteristics of the variety, soil type, climatic factors, sowing dates, and seeding rates. The highest content of essential oil was 7.88 ml/kg in Perlyna Lisostepu in the autumn sowing period with a seeding rate of 6 kg/ha, and the lowest (4.02 ml/kg) was in Bodegold in the summer sowing period with a sowing rate of 8 kg/ha. The content of flavonoids in dehydrated raw materials ranged from 1.23 to 2.37%. We found that in the solution of essential oil of chamomile flowers of the medicinal varieties Perlyna Lisostepu and Bodegold, the presence of - (-) ??-bisabolol, en-yn-dicycloether, borneol, bornyl acetate, chamazulene, and guaiazulene was identified, and another non-enolizable aldehyde was found. The obtained results indicate that during the autumn sowing period with a seeding rate of 6 kg/ha, the maximum yield of 2.10 t/ha with the highest essential oil content of 7.88 ml/kg was provided Perlyna Lisostepu variety considering cultivation conditions.
Keywords: chamomile; variety; sowing dates; seeding rate; quality of raw materials; yield
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