Reducing danger of heavy metals accumulation in winter wheat grain which is grown after leguminous perennial precursor


S. F. Razanov, O. P. Tkachuk, O. M. Bakhmat, A. M. Razanova

Goal. Assessment of the influence of growing leguminous perennial herbs on the intensity of heavy metals accumulation in winter wheat as in a subsequent crop rotation. Methods. Field, laboratory atomic absorption method, mathematical and statistical processing. Results. cultivation of winter wheat after precursors of Medicago sativa I., Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis arenaria Kit., Melilotus albus L., Lotus corniculatus L. or Galéga orientalis Lam. leads to a decrease in the content of lead by 1.8-2.5 times, cadmium – by 1.7–2.6 times, copper - 2.2–4.6 times and zinc - 1.6–1.9 times compared to winter wheat after corn precursor on silage. To obtain winter wheat with a minimum lead and copper content, the optimal precursor is Onobrychis arenaria Kit., with a minimum cadmium content - Galéga orientalis Lam. precursor, with a minimum copper and zinc content - the Trifolium precursorpratense L. The lowest influence on the reduction of heavy metals accumulation in winter wheat grain is caused by the precursor Lotus corniculatus L. Thanks to the use of leguminous perennial herbs as a precursor to winter wheat, it is possible to reduce the accumulation coefficient of heavy metals by 1.1-2.9 times compared with the corn precursor on silage. The lowest accumulation coefficient of the studied heavy metals was observed after the precursor of Medicago sativa I. Conclusion. Leguminous perennial herbs - Medicago sativa I., Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis arenaria Kit., Melilotus albus L., Lotus corniculatus L. and Galega orientalis Lam. promote optimization of soil condition by increasing the content of humus, minerals nutrients, optimization of soil acidity. As a result, they reduce the accumulation of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc) in winter wheat as the next crop in crop rotation and contribute to the reduction of accumulation coefficient of heavy metals in winter wheat.
Key words: Heavy metals; Accumulation; Grain; Leguminous perennial herbs; Precursor
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