Research of techniques of microclimate improvement in poultry houses
A.P. Palii, S.H. Pylypenko, I.M. Lukyanov, O.V. Zub, A.V. Dombrovska, K.V. Zagumenna, Y.O. Kovalchuk, T.M. Ihnatieva, K.V. Ishchenko, A.P. Paliy, O.L. Orobchenko
Creating an optimal microclimate in poultry houses is an important condition for implementing the genetic potential of poultry productivity and minimizing the specific costs of material and technical resources. Such microclimate parameters as the content of harmful gases in the air of the poultry houses and its microbial contamination have a significant impact not only on the survival and productive parameters of the poultry, but also on the health of the staff, and the ventilation emissions from the poultry houses - on the environment. Therefore, the development of techniques and technological methods aimed at reducing the content of these ‘harmful factors’ in the air of the poultry houses is of paramount importance for modern poultry farming. The first experiments were carried out in two similar industrial poultry houses for egg laying hens, 18×96 m in size. Hens were kept in 4-tier Hellmann cage batteries with a belt removal system and integrated air ducts. The capacity of each poultry house was 47,280 laying hens. The purpose of the experiment was to study the influence of the device for the neutralization of microorganisms in the air of the poultry house and its mode of operation on the microbial contamination of the air of the poultry house and the productive parameters of the poultry. The poultry of the Lohmann Brown crossbreed was used. The next experiment was carried out in the same poultry houses as in the previous one. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effects of the application of the method of purifying the air of the poultry house from the ammonia in the scrubber on the contents of this gas in the air of the poultry house and the productive parameters of the poultry. The poultry of the Lohmann Brown crossbreed was used in the experiments. It was established that at application of a bactericidal device with 24 bactericidal tubes TUV-75 caused a decrease of microbial contamination of the air, which positively influenced the survival and productive parameters of the poultry. After 210 days of the productive period, the poultry’s survival in the experimental poultry house was higher by 0.8% (P<0.001); 1.3 pcs. of eggs more (P<0.05) per one egg laying hen were obtained in this poultry house; and the egg mass was higher by 0.7 g (P<0.05) than in the control poultry house. With the hens from the experimental poultry house, a greater bactericidal and lysozyme activity of the blood serum was observed than with the ones from the control poultry house (P<0.05) at the age of 30 and 47 weeks. Some advantage of the poultry from the experimental poultry house was determined by the absolute mass of individual internal organs, but this advantage was not statistically probable. It was proved that in the cold season, the scrubber provided a decrease in the ammonia content in the air (when comparing the air before and after the scrubber) by 3.2-2.2 times, in the poultry house (when compared with the control) - by 2.1-1.5 times. It was established that in the experimental poultry house the poultry’s survival was greater by 0.7% (P<0.001), 1.6 pcs., or by 1.0% (P<0.01) eggs more per one egg laying hen were obtained and egg mass was higher by 212 g, or by 2.1% than in the control poultry house.
Keywords: Toxic gases; poultry house; ventilation; scrubber; microclimate; poultry litter; ammonia; adsorbent; air treatment
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