Research Of The Pinus Sylvestris Pollen As A Method Of Assessing The Degree Of Air Pollution

Abstract

G. I. Nenasheva, N. B. Maksimova, G. G. Morkovkin, M. S. Ivanova

As a result of exposure to plants of various factors associated with anthropogenesis, a huge amount of pollen grains with altered morphological structures and biochemical properties is produced, which affects its fertility and the normal functioning of phytocoenoses. In the present work, using the example of Pinus sylvestris L. growing on the territory of the city of Barnaul as a model object, the possibility of using the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pollen of plants depending on the state of the bioindication of the state of the environment (primarily atmospheric air) is substantiated. The data used for the analysis were obtained during the six seasons of flowering of Pinus sylvestris (May–June 2010–2015) in six permanent and nine additional observation points in the city of Barnaul located in the territory with a tense and critical ecological state of the landscapes. An analysis of the quality of the pollen was carried out by selecting it directly from the anthers during the active dusting period. As a control, pollen samples collected in the countryside of the Barnaul pine forest belt, which is an isolated and remote vegetation site relative to the industrial zone of Barnaul and large motor roads, were used. As a result of the research, it was found that the points with the highest pollen sterility and teratomorphic grain areas in the zone of very unfavorable ecological situation, which correspond to the areas of the greatest air pollution. More negative impact is shown in the territories located in an accessible proximity to motorways and parking lots. The proportion of sterile and teratomorphic pollen grains at such points is much higher than the reference values, which indicates a large share of the negative impact of emissions of mobile sources of atmospheric air pollution (vehicles) on the change in the morphological, biological and physical characteristics of Scotch pine pollen. Thus, palynoindication analysis can be one of the methods of bioindication of the state of the environment (primarily atmospheric air), as the most accessible and effective method of research and monitoring.

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