Soils diversity and evolution trends within the terrace complex of the upper Ob near Kireyevsk

Abstract

A.O. Konstantinov, S.V. Loiko, E.Yu. Konstantinova, A.A. Novoselov

The research presents the results of studying soil variability within the Ob river fluvial terraces near the village of Kireyevsk, Kozhevnikovsky District, Tomsk Region. The general regularities in the organization of the soil cover are determined by the lithological features of the sediments that build up various geomorphological levels, their age, the current hydrological regime and the directions of river valley geomorphological and hydrological evolution. Three geomorphological levels are distinguished for the Ob river valley within the study area: the high floodplain in backland regime, evolving into the first terrace, the first terrace and the second terrace. Gleyic Calcaric Fluvisols forming on buried Histic Gleysols or Histosols dominate within the high floodplain. Different variants of Albic Luvisols under mixed pine-birch forests with a developed grassy stage are predominant within the first terrace. The illuvial horizons of these soils have a lithogenic origin and develop from depredating dense alluvial layers. The soils of the second terrace are Albic Arenosols and Folic Entic Podzols. Oxidized-gley and residual-carbonate variants develop in the transition zone between the first and the second terraces. In general, the patterns of soil cover organization and the prevailing soil-forming processes correspond to the main trends in the development of the river valley during Holocene. The soils of the drained floodplain have recently completed the synlithogenic stage of their development and retain such features of alluvial soils as high content of carbonates, the presence of well-marked burial horizons, intermittency and variability of sedimentation that of the middle and lower parts of the profile. The soils of the first terrace evolve towards the zonal texturally differentiated soils. The main processes in these soils are humus accumulation and leaching of carbonates. The soils of the second terrace are distinguished by the predominance of the Al-Fe-humus process, which is explained by the fact that the surface of the second terrace underwent aeolian processing in the late Pleistocene. The obtained results testify to the extremely high dynamics of the soils and landscapes development within the fluvial terraces of the Ob, and, consequently, to their low resistance to anthropogenic impact.

Keywords: Sub-boreal forest; lithological-geomorphological organization; albic arenosols; folic entic podzols; fluvisols; gleysols; Western Siberia

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