The content of fatty acids in the tissues of honey bees after feeding with herbicide
S.V. Khyzhnyak, S.V. Midyk, S.V. Sysoliatin, V.L. Kovalenko, L.M. Ishchenko, V.√ź?. Voitsitskiy, O.M. Yakubchak
Changes in agroecological and environmental conditions in the result of the use of pesticides can affect the life cycle and functional activity of honey bees. In acute oral study we investigated the influence of herbicide on honey bees A. mellifera L. Active ingredients of the herbicide are: desmedipham, fenmediphim, ethofumesate, 71+91+112 g/dm3, that are related to the chemical groups of carbamates and benzofuranyl alkanesulfonates. Under the action of herbicide in indicated doses the temporary inhibition of A. mellifera L honey bees’ activity was observed. Biochemical pathways of insects' response to the influence of the herbicide were evaluated during the study of the fatty acid spectrum of lipids in the tissues of the thoracic and abdominal segments of worker bees. Using the method of high-sensitivity gas chromatography, we detected and quantitatively identified 17 fatty acids (FAs) in the tissues of bees in the control and experimental groups. The redistribution of the content of individual FAs (saturated and unsaturated) was revealed during the action of the herbicide. In particular, a decrease in the total content of saturated FAs may indicate a lower level of energetic and structural fatty acid reserves. Besides, the revealed decrease in the content of monoenoic FAs, particularly oleic acid, as well as short-chain saturated FAs in the conditions of herbicidal load, likely affects the protective functions of bee organism. The increase of the content of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs may have an adaptive significance in response to exogenous effects. This is particularly true for arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, which are involved in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes. It is assumed that the decrease in the content of the FAs of ω-6 family, as well as the increase of ω-3 and ratio value of ω-3 / ω-6, characterizes the type of eicosanoids synthesized in organism in herbicide load conditions. This is probably due to the activity of the acyl-lipid desaturase ω-3 and ω-6, as evidenced by the increase of the ratio of 22:6ω3 /18:3ω3 and 20:4ω6/18:2ω6. The revealed modifications of the spectrum of the lipids' FAs in the tissues of honey bee can be explained by the participation of the FAs in the reorganization of reactivity system of the bee organism as the response to herbicide load, since the redistribution of fatty acids in bee organism is one of the important indicative characteristics of the insects' physiological status and viability.
Keywords: Herbicide; honey bees; fatty acids; polyenoic polyunsaturated fatty acids
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