The cows calving in the selection of bull-breeder in Monbeliard, Norwegian Red and Holstine breed
The purpose of the research was to evaluate the nature of calving in cows of Ukrainian Black-Spotted and Red-Spotted dairy breeds in the selection of bulls of Montbeliard, Norwegian Red, and Holstein breeds. Methods: the research was conducted in four breeding plants of the Cherkasy region, which are engaged in breeding Holstein, Ukrainian Black, and Red-spotted dairy breeds on livestock of 780 cows. The determination of live weight and linear measurements of newborn calves was performed on their birthday for 1-3 hours after calving. The clinical examination results determined cows' clinical and gynecological condition by a veterinarian by the method of rectal examination. Stillbirths were recorded in a binary way as living (1) or dead (0). Twin calves and calves as a result of abortion were excluded from the data. It was found that calving took place without complications when the live mass of calves did not exceed 6-7% of the mother's mass. The lowest calving current score and the lightest calving were obtained in the conditions of FE Lan" using Norwegian Red breed - 1.6 points. Besides, when using Norwegian Red breed bulls, the lowest percentage of offspring stillbirth was obtained - 1.8%. When crossing cows of the Ukrainian Red-Spotted dairy breed with breeders, the offspring of the Montbeliard breed was got, prevailing peers got from Holstein breeders by body measurements: head width (12.7-12.9 cm) by 1.5-2.2 cm, width in the shoulder-scapular joints (19.1-19.7 cm) by 1.2-1.6 cm, width in the hip joints (20.6-21.5 cm) by 1.7-2.2 cm. Even though the average score on the course of calving was higher in cows, inseminated with the semen of bulls of the Montbeliard breed, in fact in these groups, the frequency of heavy calving with the help of 5 or more people, or with the intervention of a veterinarian was lower by 0.2-1.3%. The use of crossbreeding can be effective in reducing the proportion of heavy calving and stillbirth among the offspring; however, we should carefully approach the choice of the breeder (it is desirable to take into account its evaluation by the ease of the calving, especially when using the Montbeliard breed), its breed belonging and the analysis of the breeding stock on which the crossing will be used.