The influence of environmental factors on fish productivity in small reservoirs and transformed waters
O.V. Honcharova, R.P. Paraniak, P.S. Kutishchev, N.M. Paraniak, N.I. Hradovych, O.V. Matsuska, O.P. Rudenko, N.A. Lytvyn, B.V. Gutyj, L.M. Maksishko
The relevance of the article lies in the need to study artificial aquatic ecosystems, as uncontrolled anthropogenic impact is increasingly multifactorial and complex, characterized by a high degree of pollution, leads to irreversible changes in the structure of reservoirs, reducing the quality of the environment. This complicates the lives of all living organisms and has a particularly negative effect on human health and life expectancy. The problem of rational development of transformed water areas is complicated by circumstances of different origin of man-made nature. The load on reservoirs has led to the emergence of specific conditions for the formation of taxonomic composition, production and destruction processes and their quality. Optimizing the potential of artificial aquatic ecosystem systems will improve the quality of water resources and their conservation. Solving this problem requires in-depth research into the adaptive capacity and relationship of fish populations in the reservoir ecosystem. The research was conducted in the research laboratories of the Department of Aquatic Bioresources and Aquaculture of Kherson State Agrarian and Economic University and the Department of Ecology of the Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv. Environmental conditions and influencing factors play an extremely important role in the life of fish. The main factors influencing the formation of parameters of artificial aquatic ecosystems are water volumes and discharge regimes, as well as the degree of pollution from industrial and domestic effluents. The dynamics of physico-chemical indicators of the quality of the aquatic environment during the experiment generally takes place within the normative for traditional breeding of pond fish, which did not significantly affect the course of the experiment. Biological indicators have become a priority in the modern period in the comprehensive ecological assessment of the aquatic ecosystem. The selected models were taken from two groups of yearling and annual carp (Cyprinus carpio), 20 individuals in each group. For the general assessment of the content of fish in the system of the pool type with recirculating water circulation, morphological indicators of blood were determined. When rearing young carp in polyculture, the spectrum of nutrition was taken into account, partially using the water from fish pools, which is enriched with nutrients, in particular various forms of nitrogen. When analyzing the functional status of the body of fish in the experimental group, there was an increase in the quality of indicators that reflect the homeostatic balance in the body, metabolic processes exceeded the values in the control. To ensure high-quality conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use, the proposed methods and technological recommendations can become an effective tool for the development of traditional knowledge of fisheries in our country.
Key words: artificial aquatic ecosystems, ecotransformation, anthropogenic impact, carp (Cyprinus carpio), rational use, biodiversity conservation
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