The influence of environmental factors on the structure and formation of inflorescences of the representatives of the genera Matthiola W.T. Aiton, Hesperis L., Lunaria L. and Lobularia Desv. of the Brassicaceae Burnett family under conditions of natural and artificial biocenoses

Abstract

K.S. Berezenko, A.P. Palii, S.V. Chuhaiev, O.I. Shkromada, I.V. Yatsenko

In a certain period of his life the plant forms reproductive organs, or organs of sexual reproduction. In angiosperms Magnoliophyta-these are flowers, from which later fruit and seeds are formed. In most cases, flowers arise at the ends of the shoots, forming various groups called inflorescences. The term "inflorescence" was first introduced in the literature in the writings of Carl Linnaeus and was considered as the arrangement of flowers-a way of attaching flowers to the flower buds of the plant. Scientists have identified the following types of inflorescences: a shield, a tassel, an ear, a trunk, and others. The concept of cyme and raceme inflorescence was described by Parkin. According to J. Bentham and J. Hooker, inflorescences can be represented as "a set of flowering branches and flowers on them", also used the term "flowering branch" as an independent. Many types of inflorescences are not categorical or can combine more than one type. Wilhelm Troll has developed an exact typological structure for describing homology among a wide range of inflorescences, which was expanded and translated into English by Weberling. At the end of the XX-beginning of the XXI century, the interest of the botanists to the study of inflorescences increased significantly. Inflorescences of the family Brassicaceae Burnett are very diverse. Among them there are species with single flowers, small-flowered (with two, three flowers) and multi-flowered inflorescences. Despite the interest of tax collectors and morphologists in the family, the works devoted to the study of morphology and anatomy of inflorescences of Brassicaceae are few. Many existing systems of description and classification of inflorescences, different interpretations of certain terms and concepts, in particular, different interpretation of cyme and raceme inflorescences, led to the need to study the floral structure of the system of shoots among representatives of the family Brassicaceae. It should be noted that many species of this family have a great economic value, as food (Brassica oleracea (L.), Raphanus sativus var. radicula (Pers).) oil plants (Brassica nigra (L.) Koch., Eruca sativa Lam., Brassica napus L.), honey plants (Cardaria draba (L.) Desv., Camelina sativa (Cr.)), technical (Isatis tinctoria (L.)), forage plants (Brassica rapa subsp. rapifera (Metzger)), spice-flavored plants (Sinapis (L.), Armoracia rusticana (G. Gaertn.), B.Mey. & Scherb., Eutrema japonicum (Miq.) Koidz.) and others. Certain species are used in decorative flower gardening and landscape design (Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC., Lobularia maritima (L.), Lunaria annua (L.), Hesperis sibirica (L.)).

Keywords: Inflorescence; flower; bract; bracteole; meristem

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