The Spatial Organisation Of The Soil Mesopedobionts Under Recreation Impact

Abstract

O. N. Kunakh, A. V. Zhukov, Yu. A. Baljuk

In work the results of studying of the spatial organization of soil mesofauna of the artificial forest planting have been processed by OMI- and RLQ-analysis methods. Our research were conducted in June, 6st, 2011 in Oles Gonchar University botanic garden (earlier – territory of park of J. Gagarin, Dnepropetrovsk). The studied plot is situated at a distance of 220 m from the Building 1 of DNU and at a distance of 95 m from Y. Gagarin Avenue (the Southeast direction) (48°25'53.88"?, 35°2'25.82"??). The plot consists of 15 transects directed in a perpendicular manner in relation to the Avenue. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m. The coordinates of the lower left point have been taken as (0; 0). The plot represents artificial forest-park planting. The vegetation has typically wood, mesotrophic and mesophilic character (93.55% – silvants, 70.97% – mesotrophic, 57.84% – mesophiles). At each point the soil mesofauna was studied; temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, dead leaf layer and herbage height were measured. Soil-zoological test area had a size of 25×25 cm. In ecological structure of the soil animal community have been found such groups dominant as saprophages, pratants and stepants, hygrophilous, mesotrophocoenomorphes, endogeic topomorphes. The measured edaphic characteristics have been shown to play an important role in structure of an ecological niche in mesopedobiont community. The basic trends of structure transformation of the animal community of soil mesofauna have been found as soil humidity gradient and edaphic properties variability caused features of a forest vegetation cover. The usage of morphological or physiological features of animals for an estimation of degree of specific distinctions is applicable for homogeneous taxonomic or ecological groups possessing comparable characteristics which also can be interpreted ecologically. The soil mesofauna is characterized by high taxonomic and ecological diversity of forms and comparing which by morphological or physiological criteria it is rather inconvenient. Ecological sense of characteristics in different groups will not be identical, and the basis for their comparison will be inadequate. Therefore we apply to the description of the ecological features ectomorphic analysis of soil animals. The organization of communities of soil animals may be considered at levels of an investigated point, a biogeocenosis, a landscape and regional level. Actually, on the basis of landscape-ecological distribution of species in ecological space their accessory to ecological groups – an ecomorphes is established. Various directions of allocating an ecomorphes at the landscape level conditionally are considered independent and form an ecological matrix (in multidimensional space – a multidimensional matrix, or tensor). As the level of a biogeocenosis correlation degree with the ecomorphes, possibly, will be rather high, therefore soil animals will form local, but functionally significant, groups. The regular ratio of ecomorphes in these functional groups will be a reflection of their organizational structure and an ecological diversity. The obtained data testifies to the justice of the come out assumption. It is important to notice that fact that the functional groups allocated in ecological space by means of the RLQ-analysis, show regular patterns of spatial variability. Local functional groups are characterized by ecological characteristics which reflect in terms one ecomorphes of property of others, occupying the higher hierarchical position. So, it is established that within the studied range, steppe ecomorphes are presented by megatrophic, xerophilous, megatrophocoenomorphes, and mostly phytophagous or predatory forms. Meadow and paludal forms are mainly epigeic (paludal) or anecic (meadow), hygrophilous or ultragygrophilous, saprophagous. The pioneering complex of destructive loci is presented by functional group which has no accurate coenotic status, but gravitates to steppe type. Such result approaches us to an understanding of mechanisms of transformation of community of soil animals under anthropogenic impact. For this purpose it is necessary to return to understanding coenomorphes as indicators of types of circulation of substances and energy flow on A. L. Belgard (1971). In such treatment we observe destruction coenotic system unities of a complex under anthropogenic impact, and the functional group appears at us as situational set of species. Obviously, such treatment is hypothetical and demands the further check. However the considered algorithm of gathering of materials and their statistical processing gives the practical tool for the decision of the given problem.

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