To solve legal-environmental challenges in national law of Iran and other countries sustainable development fulfilment necessity
M. Noori, S.F. Mousavi, S.A. Pourhashemi, D. Karimi
The occurred changes in the earth are the most important historical transformations. It is a major opinion that the earth is not going to respond the human beings needs anymore, and we should think about the solutions. During the last decades, several meetings and seminars have been performed in this concern. But, unfortunately, none of the objectives have been achieved. The reason is that there is not any operative protection for the international laws and regulations. Hence, the countries and nations’ authorities should include their accepted obligations within the international meetings in their domestic regulations, which contain a larger operative protection comparing the international ones. Iran is a country which contains special natural and environmental characteristics and is one of the first countries who play an important role in creating international environmental law. So, investigating this country domestic laws in comparison with the international environmental laws transformations will reflex its governors’ viewpoints and strategies and the interaction between the internal and international law in this content. The existing research has been designed based on the results of the field studies which have been fulfilled in 20 provinces of Iran regarding the legal-environmental challenges resulted from the rules and regulation governing the forests, pastures and natural environment and their affected laws, and also, studies the ordinary and program laws of Iran applying the proving, comparative and critical methods. The studies show that, there are a large variety of ordinary law subjects which are not coordinated with international documents. Although, the international coordinated rules are centralized in government organizations which does not attract people participation and will not lead our society to a sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to inform people the values of natural resources and their interaction, while revising, improving and integrating the rules in this due to represent them in a unique complex.
Keywords: Legal challenges; sustainable development; environment; jungle; rules contradiction; ownership
Abdollahi, M. (2006). The Environment Law’s Juridical Booklet, Tehran, Khorsandi.
Sincero, A. P., and Sincero, G. A. (1996). Environmental Engineering: A design approach.
Bumabad Consulting Enginers. (2003). Determining the Value of Applications and non- Commercial Services Presented in the Country’s Forests and Pastry. A Study.
Dabiri, F. (2012). Internal Environment Law. Tehran Free University, Sciences and Researches Unit, Educational Pamphlet, Iran.
Ebrahimnia, R. (2005). The Importance of Environment in Ancient Iran. History Research Journal.
Ebrahimi, B. (2006). Investigating The Environmental Crimes Resulted from Destroying and Demolition of the Environment with Special Emphasize on the Forests and Pastry and Presenting Legal Suggestions in this due. Bachelor’s Thesis, Islamic Free University, Sciences and Researches Unit, Tehran, Iran.
Emami, S. H. (1999). Civil Law. Tehran, Iran.
Environment Organization of Iran, Legal and Parliamentary Office. (2010). Environment Law (Theories and Trends). Tehran, Iran.
Environment Organization of Iran, Legal and Parliamentary Office. (2009). Environment Laws and Regulations Collection and the Country’s Holistic Transcendence. Tehran, Iran.
Environment Organization of Iran, Legal and Parliamentary Office. (2005). Environment Laws and Regulations Collection, International Associations and Treaties. The Environment Organization Press, Tehran, Iran.
FAO. (2017). Global Forest Resources Assessment.
Forestry and Pastry Organization. (2012-2017). Forests and Pastry Organization Projects Evaluation and Supervision in 20 Provinces Report.
Gellens, V., Boelems, J., Verstraete, W. (1995). Source separation, selective collection and in reactor Digestion of Bio waste Netherland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA.
Ghasemi, N. (2011). Disciplinary Environment Law, Tehran, Iran.
Gondling, L. (2011). Environment Law. Tehran University, Iran.
Habibi, M., and Salimzadeh, S. (2010). International Commerce and Environment Law. Tehran. Asar Andisheh, Iran.
Mousavi, S. F. (2002). International Environment Law. Harvard Law Magazine, Tehran University, Iran.
Herbert, F., Lund P. E. (2001). Recycling Information and Sources. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA.
Herbert, F., Lund, P. E. (2001). Recycling Handbook. McGraw - Hill, Washington DC, USA.
IUCN. (2008). Statutory and Customary Forest Rights and their Governance Implications The Case of Vietnam, For the IUCN Strengthening Voices for Better Choices Project.
Jafary, L., Mohammad, J. (2009). Law Terminology. Tehran, Iran.
Katoozian, N. (2010). Properties and Ownership. Tehran, Iran.
Katoozian, N. (2007). Law Philosophy, Tehran, Iran.
Katoozian, N. (1999). Civil Law in Existing Law System. Tehran, Iran.
Katoozian, N. (2011). Law Science Preface and Study in Iran Law System. Enteshar Co, Tehran, Iran.
Khakiani, Mohammad Reza. (2003). Forests Protection. Zolal, Tehran, Iran.
Low Forest Cover Countries Secretariat. (2009). Low Forest Cover Countries Secretariat. Tehran, Iran.
Martiner, R. (2007). Europe Disciplinary Law History. Tehran, Iran.
Majnounian, H. (2000). Protected Regions of Iran (Regions and Natural Parks Protection Strategies Fundamentals), Environment Organization.
Majnounian, H. (2000). Global Strategies and Treaties to Protect Nature and Live Resources, Environment Organization.
Mirzabyani, R. (2007). Investigating Existance Environment and Legal Conditions of Northern Forests of Iran and Presenting Necessary Solutions to Protect Them, Tehran. Master’s Thesis, Sciences and Researches University, Iran.
Mohajer, E. (1999). People Participation Management in Protecting Natural Environment Resources (Forests) in Golestan Province, Tehran. Master’s Thesis, Sciences and Researches University, Iran.
Mosadegh, A. (2008). Forestation, Tehran University.
Mosadegh, A. (2010). Forest Ecology, Tehran. Iran Agricultural Science, Iran.
Mostafaei, R. (2014). Fundamental Law. Tehran, Iran.
Mousavi, S. F. (2007). Transformation Process of International Environment Law References. Tehran, Mizan, Iran.
Noori, M. (2013). The Position of International Environment Law in Islamic Law Resources. Tehran. Master’s Thesis, Sciences and Researches University, Iran.
Pourhashemi, S. A., and Arghand, B. (2011). International Environment Law. Tehran, Dadgostar, Iran.
Rezvani, M. (2005). Protection Subject Investigation and Suggesting Legal and Ground Rules Regarding The Strategies in order to Achieve The Country’s Forestry and Pastry Sustainable Development. PHD Thesis, Tehran Free University, Sciences and Researches Unit, Tehran, Iran.
Sadeghi, B. (2016). Legal Effects of the Owner’s Occupation in Uncertain Ownership. Majd, Tehran, Iran.
Shahid Baheshti University’s Human Rights, Peace and Democracy of UNESCO Seat, Peace Group. (2011). Human Existence Environmental Law. Dadgostar, Tehran, Iran.
Shamekhi, T. (2000) Appropriate Organization for The Country’s Agriculture. Natural Resources and The Environment, Tehran. Tehran University, Iran.
Shamekhi, T. (2010). Natural Resources Laws and Management, (Forests and Pastry), Tehran. Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
Soria, C., Couro, L., and Robinson, N. (2012). Fundamentals of International Environment Law. Tehran, Mizan, Iran.
Taghizadeh, A. M. (2012). Disciplinary Environment Law, Tehran. Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
Takacs, D. (2010). Forest Carbon Offsets and International Law: A Deep Equity Legal Analysis.
Pirouzneek, M. (2017). The United Nations Document, Transforming Our World, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. National UNESCO Commission, Tehran, Iran.
Ziaei, B., Mohammad, R. (1994). Public International Law, Tehran, Iran.