Tolerance of hazelnuts towards unfavorable environmental factors
I.S. Kosenko, A.F. Balabak, S.P. Sonko, O.A. Balabak, A.V. Balabak, A.I. Opalko, I.L. Denysko, L.V. Soroka
We performed a comprehensive analysis of the bioecological characteristics of growing Corylus spp., among them number of native, introduced, and newly created by us hazelnut varieties in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe Zone of Ukraine. The majority of Ukrainian breeding varieties (in particular, “Dar Pavlenka”, “Shedevr”, “Dohidny”, “Lozivskyi Bulavovydnyi”) demonsrated strong tolerance towards the air temperature ocillations during the vegetation period. We separated thd varieties of hazelnuts, which were frost-resistant during the entire cold period within the year. Comprehensive evaluation of their winter- and frost-resistance confirmed their sufficient adaptability to the conditions of the studied horticultural area. The newly created hazelnut varieties “Sofiyevskiy 1” and “Sofiyevskiy 15” turned out to be the best concerning their winter hardiness potential. We also found that, with a water deficit, the content of total water in the leaves of hazelnut varieties “Sofiyivsky 15”, “Ukraina-50”, and “Trapezund” was 56.9–57.8% in August. The least amount of total water was registered in “Cherkeskyi-2” leaves (54.2 %). We established, that the minimum moisture deficit was typical for the varieties “Ukraina-50” and “Trapezund” and made 5.1 and 6.4% to the raw mass of leaves in the hottest period of studies, while for the varieties “Sofiyivsky 15” and “Cherkeskyi-2”, these values exceeded 9.0 and 12.5%. Thus, the analysis of the water regime of the leaves of the studied varieties of hazelnut in terms of total water content, water deficit, relative turgorescence, intensity of loss and the percentage of moisture recovery indicated a high level of drought adaptation in “Ukraine-50” and “Trapezund” hazelnut varieties. We suggested that the deterioration of the light regime negatively affected the growth processes of all the studied varieties of hazelnut. In the conditions of insufficient illumination, the hazelnut plants did not die but significantly retarded in size and number of lateral shoots and leaves as compared with plants grew in a well-lit plot. As a result of the research, we created a number of new varieties of hazelnuts, namely “Sofiyivsky 1” and “Sofiyivsky 15”. These carieties combined enhanced tolerance to the abiotic factors with high productivity and fruit quality. We also applied for registration of “Sofiyivsky 1” and “Sofiyivsky 15” in the Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination for State Scientific and Technical Expertise in Ukraine.
Key words: agro-climatic conditions; Forest-Steppe Zone; Ukraine; variety; drought tolerance; total water content; leaves water regime; winter and frost resistance
Amaral, J. S., Ferreres, F., Andrade, P., Valentão, P., Pinheiro, C., Santos, A., & Seabra, R. (2005). Phenolic profile of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) leaves cultivars grown in Portugal. Nat. Prod. Res, 19(2), 157–163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410410001704778.
Alasalvar, C., Karamac, M., Amarowicz, R., & Shahidi, F. (2006). Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover. J. Agric. Food Chem, 54, 4826–4832. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0601259.
Bublyk, M. O., Patyka, T. I., Kytaiev, O. I., Makarov, D. H., Kryvoshapka, V. A., Honcharuk, Yu. D., & Potanin, D. V. (2013). Laboratorni ta pol'ovi metody vyznachennia morozostiykosti plodovykh porid i kul'tur (metodychni rekomendatsii). Kyiv: IS NAAN. 26. (In Ukrainian).
Ciemniewska-?ytkiewicz, H., Verardo, V., Pasini, F., Bry??, J., Koczo??, P., & Caboni, M. F. (2015). Determination of lipid and phenolic fraction in two hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars grown in Poland. Food chemistry, 168, 615–622. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.107.
Corylus formosana Hayata. (2018). Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone. Copyright Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available from: http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:108019-1/ (Accessed 12 December 2018)
Enescu, C. M., Houston Durrant, T., de Rigo, D., & Caudullo, G. (2016). Corylus avellana in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, e015486.
Fisher R. A. (2006). Statistical methods for research workers. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications.
Gökirmak, T., Mehlenbacher, S. A., & Bassil, N. V. (2009). Characterization of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cultivars using SSR markers. Genetic resources and crop evolution, 56(2), 147–172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-008-9352-8.
Hutchinson, J. (1968). 63. Corylaceaei. The genera of flowering plants (Angiospermae). Oxford Univeristy Press; London. ????, Dicotyledones.
?slam, A. (2018). Hazelnut culture in Turkey. Akademik Ziraat Dergisi, 7(2), 259–266. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29278/azd.476665.
Kondratenko, P. V., & Bublyk, M. O. (1996). Metodyka provedennia pol'ovykh doslidzhen' z plodovymy kul'turamy. Kyiv: Ahrarna nauka (In Ukrainian).
Kosenko, I. S. (2015). Genetic resources of the genus Corylus L. in the National Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka” of NAS of Ukraine. Ecological Consequences of Increasing Crop Productivity: Plant Breeding and Biotic Diversity [Eds. Anatoly I. Opalko et al.]. Toronto; New Jersey: Apple Academic Press. Ch. 16. 155–166.
Kosenko, I. S., Opalko, A. I., & Opalko, O. A. (2008) Hazelnut: Applied Genetics, Breeding, the Methods of Propagation and Production. [Ed.: Ivan Sem. Kosenko]. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka (In Ukrainian).
Kosenko, I. S., Opalko, A. I., Balabak, O. A., & Shulga, S. M. (2016). Corylus spp. genetic resources use in hazelnuts Corylus domestica Kos. et Opal. improvement. Autochthonous and Alien Plants, 12, 120–136. (in Ukraine).
Kosenko, I. S., Opalko, A. I., Balabak, O. A., Opalko, O. A., & Balabak A. V. (2017). Hazelnut breeding in the National Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka” of the NAS of Ukraine. Plant varieties studying and protection, 13(3), 245–251. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21498/2518-1017.13.3.2017.110706.
Kosenko, I. S., Opalko, A. I., Balabak, O. A., Opalko, O. A., & Balabak A. V. (2019). Hazelnut (Corylus domestica Kos. et Opal.) research and breeding at NDP «Sofiyivka» of NAS of Ukraine. Temperate Horticulture for Sustainable Development and Environment. Ecological aspects [Eds.: Larissa I. Weisfeld, Anatoly I. Opalko, Sarra A. Bekuzarova]. Oakville; Waretown: Apple Academic Press. Ch. 13. 237–267.
Kulbida, M. I., Ielistratova, L. O., & Barabash, M. B. (2013). Current climate conditions in Ukraine. The problems of environmental protection and ecological safety, 35, 118–130. (In Ukrainian).
Kushnirenko, M. D., Kurchatova, G. P., & Kryukova, E. V. (1975). Methods for assessing the drought tolerance of fruit plants. Chisinau: Shtiintsy (In Russian).
Kukharska, M. ?. (2014). The frost resistance estimation of the Catalpa Scop. genus members with laboratory method by direct shoots freezing. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 24.9, 70–75.
Makhno, V.G. (2014). Application of the genus Corylus in ornamental and commercial gardening. Subtropical and ornamental horticulture, 50, 232–235. (In Russian).
Mezhenskyj, V. M. (2007). Unification of rating scales used into introduction of woody plants. Plant introduction, 4, 26–37. (In Ukrainian).
Millar, N. (2001). Biology statistics made simple using Excel. School Science Review, 83, 23–34.
Mosjakin, S.L., & Fedoron?uk, M. M. (1999). Vascular plants of Ukraine: a nomenclatorial checklist. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, MG Kholodny Institute of Botany. Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Peng, L., Wang, M., & Liang, W. (1996). Indexing cold tolerance/resistance of hazelnut. HortScience, 31(4), 645–645. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.31.4.645d.
Pyatnitsky, S.S. (1961). Workshop on forest selection. Moscow: Selkhozizdat (In Russian).
Reveal, J.L., & Chase, M.W. (2011). APG III: Bibliographical information and synonymy of Magnoliidae. Phytotaxa, 19(1), 71–134.
Sherman, W. B., & Beckman, T. G. (2002). Climatic adaptation in fruit crops. Genetics and Breeding of Tree Fruits and Nuts, 622, 411–428.
Sokolov, S.Ya. (1957). The current state of the theory of acclimatization and the introduction of plants. Plant introduction and green building. Acta Instituti botanici Academiae Scientiarum URSS. Ser, 6(5), 34–42. (In Russian).
Solov`eva, M. A. (1957). Winter hardiness of fruit crops under different growing conditions. Moscow: Kolos (In Russian).
Takhtajan, A. (2009). Order 38. Betulales (Corylales). Flowering Plants. Springer Science+Business Media.
Tkachyk, S. O. (2014). Methodology of examination of varieties of plants of the group of fruit, berry, native, subtropical and grapes for suitability for distribution in Ukraine (PSP). Kyiv: Nilan (in Ukrainian).
Topchii, V. (Editor-in-chief), Nikolenko N., Melnyk S., Pavlyuk N., Barban O., Tykha N., Tkachyk S. … & Yakubenko N. (2018). Sofiivskyi 15 (Application number 18286005). Hazelnut. (Corylus maxima Mill.). Plant Variety Rights Protection: Bulletin. Ukrainian institute for plant variety examination, 6, 7.