Tolerance of hazelnuts towards unfavorable environmental factors

Abstract

I.S. Kosenko, A.F. Balabak, S.P. Sonko, O.A. Balabak, A.V. Balabak, A.I. Opalko, I.L. Denysko, L.V. Soroka

We performed a comprehensive analysis of the bioecological characteristics of growing Corylus spp., among them number of native, introduced, and newly created by us hazelnut varieties in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe Zone of Ukraine. The majority of Ukrainian breeding varieties (in particular, “Dar Pavlenka”, “Shedevr”, “Dohidny”, “Lozivskyi Bulavovydnyi”) demonsrated strong tolerance towards the air temperature ocillations during the vegetation period. We separated thd varieties of hazelnuts, which were frost-resistant during the entire cold period within the year. Comprehensive evaluation of their winter- and frost-resistance confirmed their sufficient adaptability to the conditions of the studied horticultural area. The newly created hazelnut varieties “Sofiyevskiy 1” and “Sofiyevskiy 15” turned out to be the best concerning their winter hardiness potential. We also found that, with a water deficit, the content of total water in the leaves of hazelnut varieties “Sofiyivsky 15”, “Ukraina-50”, and “Trapezund” was 56.9–57.8% in August. The least amount of total water was registered in “Cherkeskyi-2” leaves (54.2 %). We established, that the minimum moisture deficit was typical for the varieties “Ukraina-50” and “Trapezund” and made 5.1 and 6.4% to the raw mass of leaves in the hottest period of studies, while for the varieties “Sofiyivsky 15” and “Cherkeskyi-2”, these values exceeded 9.0 and 12.5%. Thus, the analysis of the water regime of the leaves of the studied varieties of hazelnut in terms of total water content, water deficit, relative turgorescence, intensity of loss and the percentage of moisture recovery indicated a high level of drought adaptation in “Ukraine-50” and “Trapezund” hazelnut varieties. We suggested that the deterioration of the light regime negatively affected the growth processes of all the studied varieties of hazelnut. In the conditions of insufficient illumination, the hazelnut plants did not die but significantly retarded in size and number of lateral shoots and leaves as compared with plants grew in a well-lit plot. As a result of the research, we created a number of new varieties of hazelnuts, namely “Sofiyivsky 1” and “Sofiyivsky 15”. These carieties combined enhanced tolerance to the abiotic factors with high productivity and fruit quality. We also applied for registration of “Sofiyivsky 1” and “Sofiyivsky 15” in the Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination for State Scientific and Technical Expertise in Ukraine.
Key words: agro-climatic conditions; Forest-Steppe Zone; Ukraine; variety; drought tolerance; total water content; leaves water regime; winter and frost resistance
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