Varietal productivity of winter garlic depending on the application of organic fertilizers
Purpose: The purpose of the research was to study the influence of organic fertilizers (vermicompost) on varietal productivity and biochemical parameters of winter garlic in the Western Forest-Steppe.
Methods: Field, analytical and statistical.
Results: It has been established that winter garlic plants develop more intensively with the application of organic fertilizer vermicompost and weather, climatic conditions of cultivation. The phase of technical ripeness of winter garlic plants occurs in the third decade of June with a growing season of 128-142 days. The study of the dynamics of the root system of garlic throughout the growing season shows that the number of root hairs on the plant is from 44.8 pcs. up to 48.1 pcs. in the variant without fertilizer, then in the variant with vermicompost -46.5 pcs. up to 51.3 pcs. The leaf surface area on the 60th day after the beginning of spring regrowth in the variant with the application of vermicompost in variety Kharkiv violet was 77.6 cm2. In the Liubasha variety, the leaf surface area was 90.7 cm2 on the vermicompost application variant, and the Spas variety was 80.5 cm2, respectively. On the 90th day after the beginning of spring regrowth, the difference between the variants on the area of the leaf surface decreased, due to the biological characteristics of plants and the period of technical features. In the control variant (without fertilizers) the leaf surface area of Kharkiv Violet was 64.1 cm2, in the variant with vermicompost -81.1 cm2. A similar pattern is observed in the varieties Liubasha and Spas. Thus, in the variety Liubasha in the variant with the application of vermicompost the leaf surface area was 97.3 cm2, in the variety Spas -90.7 cm2, respectively. Increasing the weight of garlic plants depends on the application of vermicompost. Thus, in the control variant of winter garlic Kharkiv violet the average weight of the bulb was 35.2 g, and in the variant with the introduction of vermicompost - 38.4 g, which is 3.2 g more. In the variety Liubasha this indicator was 47.3 and 52.7 g, and in the variety Spas -38.6 and 40.3 g, respectively. Yields of bulbs in the variety Kharkiv violet for the application of vermicompost was 15.2 t/ha, which is 10.9% higher than the control, the variety Liubasha -19.6 t/ha or 24.3%, respectively, the variety Spas -17.2 t/ha, which exceeded the variant without fertilizers by 2.8 t/ha or 19.4%, respectively.
Vermicompost affects the formation of garlic bulbs, and the yield of standard bulbs, in the Spas variety marketability is 79.6%, which is 2.1% higher than the control variant (variety Kharkiv violet), variety Liubasha -80.3%, which is 2.8% higher. The qualitative composition of winter garlic cloves depends on environmental factors, growing season and elements of cultivation technology. Increased dry matter content in the products was observed in varieties with the variant of organic fertilizer vermicompost from 37.52 to 43.2%, sugar from 2.4% to 2.5%, ascorbic acid -from 10.2 to 11.4 mg/100 g of crude substance.