Water supply of soft winter wheat under dependent of it sorts features and sowing terms and their influence on grain yields in the conditions of the Southern Step of Ukraine

Abstract

M.M. Korkhova, A.V. Panfilova, O.A. Kovalenko, M.I. Fedorchuk, A.V. Chernova, L.G. Khonenko, N.V. Markova

It was established that with, by changing the sowing time from September 10th to October 20th, soil moisture content increased by 6-19 mm, depending on the sorts of wheat and meteorological conditions of the year. It has been proved that to achieve the lowest reserves of productive moisture, during the harvest of soft winter wheat in moderately wet years, the optimal sowing time was on September 10th and 20th, and in arid conditions on October 10th and 20th. On average, in 2011-2013, the largest amount of water (2615-2678 m³/ hectare) was consumed by soft winter wheat plants that were sown on September 10th. By postponing the sowing time by 10 days led to a decrease in this value 124-266 m³/hectare, depending on the features of sorts. The sort of soft winter wheat with the lowest total water consumption is the Odessa Blahodarka with 2349-2615 m³/ hectare, this figure was formed according to the variety of Odessa Blahodarka, and the largest - 2423-2678 m³ / ha from the Podolyanka sort. Studies had shown that in arid condition during 2012, compared to more favorable conditions in 2013, the yield of the studied sorts decreased to 42.1-100% depending on the sowing times. It was established that with postponing the sawing times from September 10th to October 10th, the yield level of the studied sorts increased from 2.83 t/ha to 3.90 t/ha. By sowing on October 10th, the coefficient of water consumption of soft winter wheat was 572.2 m3/t on average for sots of wheat, which is 65.3 m3/t more than sawing on September 30th.

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