Wind speed in easily assembled premises with different design constructions for side curtains in winter
O.O. Borshch, O.V. Borshch, O.I. Sobolev, V.M. Nadtochii, M.V. Slusar, B.V. Gutyj, S.A. Polishchuk, V.V. Malina, A.P. Korol, L.P. Korol-Bezpala, I.F. Bezpalyi, O.O. Cherniavskyi
This work aimed to identify the influence of the environment wind speed over similar indicators in easy-to-assemble premises of different configurations and insulation systems in the winter period. Air movement speed in the livestock room is also essential and affects animal and human bodies. At low temperatures in winter, a significant speed of air movement causes hypothermia in animals. High indoor wind speed can indicate the mistakes which had been made when choosing a farm location. The research was conducted in the central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine (Kyiv region) in three farms with free-stall housing of cows: option I – keeping in an easy-to-assemble room; option II – In an easy-to-assemble room with curtain insulation; option III – In an easy-to-assemble room on a deep straw litter within the period from December 1, 2019, to February 29, 2020. It has been established that the territory of the central part of Ukraine during the winter period of the year is characterized by the dominance of winds of the southern (South), south-eastern (South-East), and south-western (South-West) directions, which amount is more than 50% of average wind rose. The cold winds from the north and east constitute 31%. The average wind speed in winter is 9.8 m/s. The results of the research have shown that the use of insulation systems for side curtains can extend for 13 days the permissible norms of wind speed indoors and protect more effectively from the environment during all categories of wind speed, as well as reduce wind speed indoors by 11.68–21.74% compared to an easy-to-assemble box and deep litter.
Keywords: dairy cows, cold weather, wind speed, easy-to-assemble premises
Ames, D.R., & Insley, L.W. (1975). Wind-chill effect for cattle and sheep. Journal of Animal Science, 40, 161–165. doi: 10.2527/jas1975.401161x.
Angrecka, S., & Herbut, P. (2016). Impact of Barn Orientation on Insolation and Temperature of Stalls Surface. Annals of Animal Science, 16 (3), 887–896. doi: 10.1515/aoas-2015-0096.
Angrecka, S., & Herbut, P. (2017). Eligibility of lying boxes at different THI levels in a freestall barn. Annals of Animal Science, 17, 257–269. doi: 10.1515/aoas-2016-0053.
Bergen, R.D., Kennedy, A.D., & Christopherson, R.J. (2001). Effects of intermittent cold exposure varying in intensity on core body temperature and resting heat production of beef cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 81, 459–465.
Bomko, V., Kropyvka, Yu., Bomko, L., Chernyuk, S., Kropyvka, S., & Gutyj, B. (2018). Effect of mixed ligand complexes of Zinc, Manganese, and Cobalt on the Manganese balance in high-yielding cows during first 100-days lactation. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 420–425. doi: 10.15421/2018_230.
Borshch, A.A., Ruban, S., Borshch, A.V., & Babenko, O.I. (2019). Effect of three bedding materials on the microclimate conditions, cows behavior and milk yield. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences, 34 (1), 19–31.
Borshch, O.O., Borshch, O.V., Donchenko, T.A., Kosior, L.T., & Pirova, L.V. (2017). Influence of low temperatures on behavior, productivity and bioenergy parameters of dairy cows kept in cubicle stalls and deep litter system. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 7(3), 73–77. doi: 10.15421/2017_51.
Borshch, O.O., Gutyj, B.V., Sobolev, O.I., Borshch, O.V., Ruban, S.Yu., Bilkevich, V.V., Dutka, V.R., Chernenko, O. M., Zhelavskyi, M. M., & Nahirniak, T. (2020). Adaptation strategy of different cow genotypes to the voluntary milking system. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(1), 145-150. doi: 10.15421/2020_23.
Borshch, O.O., Ruban, S.Yu., Gutyj, B.V., Borshch, O.V., Sobolev, O.I., Kosior, L.T., Fedorchenko, M.M., Kirii, A.A., Pivtorak, Y.I., Salamakha, I.Yu., Hordiichuk, N.M., Hordiichuk, L.M., Kamratska, O.I., & Denkovich, B.S. (2020). Comfort and cow behavior during periods of intense precipitation. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(6), 98-102. doi: 10.15421/2020_265.
Broucek, J., Letkovicova, M., & Kovalcuj, K. (1991). Estimation of cold stress effect on dairy cows. International Journal of Biometeorology, 35, 29–32. doi: 10.1007/BF01040960.
Brown-Brandl, T.M., Eigenberg, R.A., Nienaber, J.A., & Hahn, J.L. (2005). Dynamic response indicators of heat stress in shaded and non-shaded feedlot cattle, part 1: analysis of indicators. Biosystems Engineering, 91(4), 451-462. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2004.12.006.
Grymak, Y., Skoromna, O., Stadnytska, O., Sobolev, O., Gutyj, B., Shalovylo, S., Hachak, Y., Grabovska, O., Bushueva, I., Denys, G., Hudyma, V., Pakholkiv, N., Jarochovich, I., Nahirniak, T., Pavliv, O., Farionik, ?., & Bratyuk, V. (2020). Influence of "Thireomagnile" and "Thyrioton" preparations on the antioxidant status of pregnant cows. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(1), 122-126. doi: 10.15421/2020_19.
Hempel, S., Menz, C., Pinto, S., Galán, E., Janke, D., Estellés, F., Müschner-Siemens, T., Wang, X., Heinicke, J., Zhang, G., Amon, B., Del Prado, A., & Amon, T. (2019). Heat stress risk in European dairy cattle husbandry under different climate change scenarios – uncertainties and potential impacts. Earth System Dynamics, 10, 859–884. doi: 10.5194/esd-10-859-2019.
Herbut, P. (2013). Temperature, humidity and air movement variations inside a free-stall barn during heavy frost. Annals of Animal Science, 13(3), 587–596. doi: 10.2478/aoas-2013-0025.
Hulsen, J. (2013). Cow signals a practical guide for Dairy Farm Management, UK/Ireland edition, 95 p.
Kulyaba, O., Stybel, V., Gutyj, B., Turko, I., Peleno, R., Turko, Ya., Golovach, P., Vishchur, V., Prijma, O., Mazur, I., Dutka, V., Todoriuk, V., Golub, O. Dmytriv, O., & Oseredchuk, R. (2019). Effect of experimental fascioliasis on the protein synthesis function of cow liver. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(4), 612-615.
Mazur, N.P., Fedorovych, V.V., Fedorovych, E.I., Fedorovych, O.V., Bodnar, P.V., Gutyj, B.V., Kuziv, M.I., Kuziv, N.M., Orikhivskyi, T.V., Grabovska, O.S., Denys, H.H., Stakhiv, N.P., Hudyma, V.Yu., & Pakholkiv, N.I. (2020). Effect of morphological and biochemical blood composition on milk yield in Simmental breed cows of different production types. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(2), 61-67.doi: 10.15421/2020_110.
Pilatti, J.A., & Vieira, F.M. (2017). Environment, behavior and welfare aspects of dairy cows reared in compost bedded pack barns system. Journal of Animal Behavior and Biometeorology, 5, 97–105. doi: 10.14269/2318-1265/JABB.V5N3P97-105.
Ruban, S., Borshch, O.O., Borshch, O.V., Orischuk, O., Balatskiy, Y., Fedorchenko, M., Kachan, A., & Zlochevskiy, M. (2020). The impact of high temperatures on respiration rate, breathing condition and productivity of dairy cows in different production systems. Animal Science Papers and Reports, 38(l), 61–72.
Ruban, S.Yu., Borshch, O.V., & Borshch, O.O. (2017). Suchasni tekhnolohiyi vyrobnytstva moloka. (osoblyvosti ekspluatatsiyi, tekhnolohichni rishennya, eskizni proekty) [Modern milk production technologies. (peculiarities of operation, technological decisions, sketch designs)]. Kharkiv: STYLIZDAT (in Ukrainian).