Research - (2021) Volume 0, Issue 0

Distribution and management of the zoophilous flies

V.N. Domatskiy and E.I. Sivkova*
*Correspondence: E.I. Sivkova, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology, Branch of Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS., Institutskaya 2, Tyumen, 625041, Russia, Email:

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Zoophilous flies are a serious problem in animal husbandry and the source for pathogens of many infectious and invasive diseases, and their larval phase itself causes their own disease. The species specificity of flies is poorly expressed, but they give the greatest preference to cattle. More than 120 species of these insects come into contact with animals. Of these, 92 species are found in pastures, 57 in cowsheds, 48 in pigsties, and 27 in stables. The most harmful are 30 species of flies (5 species of stable flies, 4 bloodsuckers, 16 licking and 5 species of flies that cause myiasis in animals), which can be divided into 4 families: stable flies (Muscidae), blue bottle (carrion) flies (Calliphoridae), fleshflies (Sarcophagidae) and bloodsuckers (Hippoboscidae).


Zoophilous flies, Species composition, Tissue myiasis, Disease carriers, Harmfulness, Pest control.


On the territory of Russia, 15 species of zoophilous flies have been documented, which can cause obligate and facultative tissue myiasis in domestic vertebrates and invertebrates. This is a Wohlfahrtia magnifica Schin., Senotainia-Senatainia tricushis Mg. fam. Sarcophagidae (Porchinsky, 1916; Olenev, 1931; Pavlovsky, 1934, 1935; Gan, 1953; Rodendorf, 1956; Ternovoi, 1960, 1971; Boyko, 1967); Booponus-Booponus borealis Rohd. (Rodendorf, 1959; Razmakhnin, 1963; Zolotarev, 1968; Sadovnikova, 1968), green blowfly-Lucilia sericata Mg., L.illstris Mg., L. caesar L., protoformia-Protophormia terraenovae R.-D., Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Veselkin, 1966; Kolomiets andGomoyunova, 1971; Veselkin and Zagrebin, 1980; Domatsky, 1984), Chrysomya albiceps Wd. (Stackelberg, 1956), Phormia regina Mg. (Dobreanu et al., 1962) fam. Calliphoridae; Physocephala vittata F., Ph. Pusilla Mg., Zodion cinereum Mg., Z. notatum Mg., Z. asiaticum Nor. fam. Conopidae (Myshkin, 1938; Sychevskaya, 1956; Zimina, 1970; Stolbov et al., 1985). Miasis of domestic animals can be caused mainly by flies of three families.’


Green blowfly (Lucilia sericata) (Calliphoridae)

This name was given to the species by I.A. Porchinsky (1916). This is a worldwide widespread thermophilic species. In Russia, it is found in deciduous forests of the Far East, in the steppe zone of the European part of Russia, Crimea, Central Asia, and the Caucasus. It is dangerous as a carrier of many pathogenic microorganisms, helminths, and sheep myiasis pathogens. In some areas, it damages fisheries, populating fresh and fresh-salted fish with larvae (Shtakelberg, 1956). There are numerous cases of cutaneous and cavity myiasis in humans caused by this species. For example, mature larvae were found on the gangrenous surface of the leg of a patient in Germany (Bauch et al., 1984), in the human nasal cavity, United States (Greenberg, 1984). A case of human myiasis caused by larvae of Lucilia illstris was described in Finland (Luisto and Nuorteva, 1978).

The green blowfly causes great damage to sheep breeding, being the causative agent of myiasis and annually affecting a large number of animals. For example, in Germany in the summer of 1981, the damage in sheep farms reached 10% (Liebisch et al., 1983). It strongly affects sheep in Norway, England, Scotland, and north India (Seddon, 1967). It attacks together with Calliphora stugia sheep in New Zealand (Wright, 1976), and in Bulgaria-it is found together with C.vicina R.-D. (Milushev, 1977). The closely related species Lucilia cuprina causes myiasis in sheep in Australia and West Africa (Seddon, 1967; Ciola and Zarzâr, 1979), causing annual damage of $ 30-40 million (Rundle, 1984).

Green blowfly larvae are capable of parasitizing not only sheep. Thus, in Austria, cases of her myiasis have been described in dogs, cats, hedgehogs, white storks, and kestrels (Hinaidy andFrey, 1984).

The green blowfly is known as the causative agent of sheep myiasis in Ukraine (Goncharov, 1972, 1975; Zaskind and Doletsky, 1983), in Central Asia, southern Siberia (Veselkin, 1966; Domatsky, 1984).

Fleshflies (Sarcophagidae)

The most significant representative of the family is the genus Wohlfahrtia magnifica Schin., which consists of 23 species of flies found in Asia, Africa, and Europe (Derbeneva-Ukhova, 1974).

Wohlfahrtia magnifica Schin.

The species is known both in Russia and abroad-Mongolia, China, Afghanistan, Iraq, Israel, North Africa, the southeastern part of Western Europe: Romania, Austria, northern Morocco (Yasuda, 1940; Rodendorf, 1956; Supperer and Hinaidy, 1975; Ciola and Zarzârâ, 1979; Abul-Hab, 1980; Farkas et al., 2009).

It is widespread in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, the North Caucasus, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Belarus, the Baltic states (Gan, 1953; Sychevskaya, 1953; Rodendorf, 1956). In Siberia, it is most often found in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of Altai, Omsk, Tyumen, Kurgan regions, Khakassia, Tuva, and Transbaikalia (Veselkin, 1966, 1983; Domatsky, 1984). Its natural habitat enters the southern taiga subzone (Tobolsk). The natural habitat of Wohlfahrtia magnifica occupies the southern part of the Palaearctic.

Among myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica has the greatest economic importance as a massive obligate pathogen of animal myiasis. So, in the south of Kazakhstan, the incidence of wolfarthiosis in sheep reached 75% (Olenev, 1931), and in the Alma-Ata and Chimkent regions, the incidence of breeder rams is 26-30% (Kunichkin and Rabochaya, 1979), in the Semipalatinsk Irtysh region it is 15-20% (Isimbekov, 1983). In the Stavropol Territory, at least 50% of sheep suffer wolfarthiosis (Pokidov, 1971). In Western Siberia, the affection of sheep in some years in the forest-steppe zone reached 60%. Wolfarthiosis causes a significant loss of live weight in animals. Thus, the average daily loss of live weight by sick sheep is 250-570 g (Ternovoy, 1971; Ternovoy and Mikhailenko, 1973), and during the period of illness, sheep lose from 1.2 to 4.4 kg (Pokidov, 1971; Isimbekov, 1983).

Stable flies (Muscidae)

The family of stable flies, or Muscidae, includes a large number of species. In the world fauna, 3650 species from 100 genera are described. In the Palaearctic, about 850 species from 52 genera and 5 subfamilies are known. The fauna of Russia contains about 400 species (Narchuk, 2003). Stable flies are of great interest, as some species contribute to the transfer of various bacteria and viruses. The family under study includes the well-known houseflies (Musca domestica L.), which carry diseases such as dysentery, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and cholera (Zimin and Teterovskaya, 1943; Zimin, 1944a, 1944b, Zmeev, 1944a, 1944b). In addition to the housefly, the family includes a large number of not only synanthropic species, but also those living outside of settlements. In addition to the diseases listed above, stable flies carry the poliomyelitis virus, paratyphoid bacteria, tularemia, brucellosis, botulism, staphylococcal and micrococcal infections, as well as the eggs of parasitic worms: ascaris, pinworms, and broad tapeworm (Klesov, 1949; Krastin, 1949; Sychevskaya and Petrovskaya, 1949; 1958; Sychevskaya et al., 1959; Shura-Bura, 1950, 1952; Lamborn, 1936, 1937; Fisher et al., 2001; Grûbel et al., 1997; Moriya et al., 1999; Tan et al., 1997).

Some species of Muscidae lay larvae on the body and in wounds of domestic animals, others parasitize in the body of chicks (flies of the genus Philornis sp. (Aldrich, 1923; Arend, 1985; Couri, 1999; Teixeira, 1999; Fessl et al., 2001; Fessl andTebbich, 2002; Nihei and Bencke, 2003). Stock flies (Stomoxys Geuff., Lyperosia Rood.), species of the genus Hydrotaea R.-D. pierce or scratch the skin of animals and drink blood, which causes enormous damage to livestock, reducing the milk yield of cows by 15-30%, reducing the weight gain of young cattle by 25-40%, worsening the sanitary quality of livestock products (Zimin, 1951; Pavlov, 1970; Jonson and Mayer, 1999; Jonson and Matschoss, 1998, Aubakirov et al., 2015).

Muscidae are widespread in the Urals (Zagrebin, 1987, 1989, 1992, 1998; Malozyomov, 1989, 1992, 1997; Malozemov and Stepanov, 1990), Altai (Drobischenko and Shol, 1975; Sychevskaya, 1978), In Primorsky Krai (Gavrilova, 1962; Zhurba, 1963; Petrova, 1968; Soboleva andGavrilova, 1963), Yakutia (Sychevskaya, 1978), Tyva (Pridantseva, 1967; Tamarina andKhromova, 1980). In Siberia, it is most often found in the Tyumen, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk regions (Veselkin, 1966, 1989; Domatsky, 1987, 1992; Domatsky andVeselkin, 1989; Kutuzova, 1989, 1993) (Sorokina, 2006).

Limitation of Flies Abundance

Traditional fly control methods include preventive and extermination measures. The essence of the first is to exclude potential breeding conditions for flies by following sanitary and hygienic norms. The advantage of preventive measures is their environmental friendliness; however, they are not able to provide a significant reduction in the number of flies. A good result is obtained only by fighting flies using available methods-physical, chemical, biological and their combination (Sivkova, 2021).

The physical methods include various traps (sticky tape in rolls, plates, screens, elektro-feromonnye traps, CDC-type light traps with light, light with octenol, light with carbon dioxide (dry ice), light octenol and carbon dioxide). They are appropriate in small farm buildings with relatively few flies. These agents can be used in the presence of animals (Burkett, 2001; Russell, 2004; Cilek, 2011; Hapairai, 2013).

Entomophagous insects actively exterminate larvae of flies. These are parasitic hymenoptera and beetles of the Staphylinidae family. However, the number of entomophages is highly dependent on human activity. The chemicals used for pest control and delarvation are harmful to entomophages. Currently, experts involved in the extermination of flies prefer the chemical control method as the most economically justified. One of the main disadvantages of using the chemical method is the formation of insecticide-resistant arthropod populations. The development of resistance is the most important problem, since it leads to an increase in the consumption rates of agents, the number of treatment cycles, which contributes to environmental pollution (Levchenko and Silivanova, 2018; Domatsky et al., 2018).

A.N. Mashkei et al. (2011) studied the effectiveness of treatment with the "Diptocid" bait against zoophilous flies on livestock farms in Ukraine. The efficiency ranged from 93.8 to 98.4%, and with the summer camp keeping animals, it is from 87.9 to 95.6%.

According to O.A. Savelieva et al. (2016), granular baits such as "Quick-Bite", "Fly-Bite", "Karakurt" are highly effective. These baits contain imidacloprid [1-(6-chloro-3-pyredylmethyl) -N-nitro-imidazolidine-2] and methomyl as active ingredients. As an auxiliary substance, the products contain a sex pheromone that attracts insects to the granules. In studies carried out in a pig farm in the Moscow region, it was found that the use of granular bait "QuickBite" kills up to 71% of adult flies and 99.27% of fly larvae.

The studies carried out by R.T. Safiullin et al. (2016) in the pig breeding complex of the Moscow region showed that the use of the complex product Solfak Duo SK 7.5% and the larvicidal preparation Baicidal VP 2.5% kills 98.84% of imago flies and 100% of larvae.

Results and Discussion

Research by Gadaeva et al. (2016) on the effectiveness of Agita showed its insufficient effectiveness against adults (39-89%) and greater against larvae (97.6%). The advantages of the drug were reduced to its low toxicity in relation to animals, low cost, and convenience of diluting the granules of the drug in water.

A.I. Yatusevich and E.V. Miklashevskaya (2018) provide data on the determination of the insecticidal properties of Farmastomazan in 0.1-3% concentrations for the eradication of eggs, larvae and winged stages of zoophilous flies in poultry farms.

Engashev SV (2019, 2020) studied the effectiveness of the insecticidal bait FLYBLOK® granules against adult stages and larvae of zoophilous flies in a livestock complex, pig farms in the Central Region of the Russian Federation.

Levchenko M.A. and Silivanova E.A. (2020) conducted a study on an insecticidal bait containing a mixture of ivermectin and fipronil, which has a high insecticidal efficacy against the adult housefly M. domestica L. under laboratory and industrial conditions. The study was carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy under industrial conditions of baits containing the following active ingredients: neonicotinoidacetamiprid and phenylpyrazolfipronil against housefly (Musca domestica L.). Three self-developed insecticidal baits Mukhnet A (acetamiprid 1.5%), Mukhnet F (fipronil 0.15%) and Mukhnet FA (acetamiprid 0.15% and fipronil 0.015%) were compared with Agita (thiamethoxam 10%) under conditions of calves and a cowshed. The insecticidal efficacy of single component baits containing an active ingredient (fipronil or acetamiprid) was 93.7% and 94.3%, respectively, on the first day after the treatment of the premises. A bicomponent bait containing a mixture of the indicated active ingredients showed a 92% insecticidal effect.

Miklashevskaya E.V. (2020) considered the insecticidal properties of EM1- "Konkur"-a biological additive, the active substance of which is a complex of natural microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast. They are used to rehabilitate objects of the external environment and industrial premises from various stages of development of fly.


This article provides information on the distribution of zoophilous flies, their harmful value, and considers the means and methods that can be used to control the number of insects.


The article was prepared with the financial support of FNI 296-2021-0018-«Study and analysis of the epizootic state of invasive etiology diseases of agricultural and unproductive animals, bees and birds, changes in the species composition and bioecological patterns of the parasite development cycle under conditions of displacement of the boundaries of their ranges».


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Author Info

V.N. Domatskiy and E.I. Sivkova*
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology, Branch of Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS., Institutskaya 2, Tyumen, 625041, Russia

Citation: Domatskiy, V.N., Sivkova, E.I. (2021). Distribution and management of the zoophilous flies. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 11 (9), 88-94.

Received: 29-Oct-2021 Accepted: 18-Nov-2021 Published: 27-Nov-2021

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.