Research - (2021) Volume 11, Issue 8

Ecological assessment of variability of quantitative signs of spring wheat samples

Yu.Yu. Chuprina1*, I.V. Klymenko2, L.V. Golovan1, I.M. Buzina1, O.V. Koliada1, V.H. Mikheev1, О.О. Mikheeva1, N.P. Turchynova1 and I.O. Derevyanko1
 
*Correspondence: Yu.Yu. Chuprina, State Biotechnology University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, Email:

Author info »

Abstract

The article covers the assessment of the variety of the main species characteristics of spring wheat-ear length; length of awns; the number of spikelets in the ear; number of productive spikelets; the number of grains in one ear; weight of one ear; weight of grain from one ear; weight of 1000 seeds. The asymmetry index indicates how asymmetric the data distribution is relative to the normal distribution. If the asymmetry is a positive value, then most of the data has a value that exceeds the sample average.

Keywords

Spring wheat, Sample, Collection, Mass, Ear, Development, Asymmetry, Seeds.

Introduction

Objectively assess the prospects for the use of plant material in various breeding and genetic programs is possible only with a comprehensive study of a particular genotype. An important stage in the characterization of genetic diversity is the analysis of the variability of those traits that have a certain economic significance. In this case, a special place is occupied by biometric characteristics of the ear (ear length, length of awns, number of ears in the ear, weight of the ear), seed productivity (number of productive ears, number of seeds in the ear, weight of one ear, weight of 1000 seeds, yield) (Konovalov, et al., 1990).

Materials and Methods

Field research was conducted in 2018-2020 at the Educational Research and Production Center "Experimental Field of V.V. Dokuchaiev Kharkiv National Agrarian University (KhNAU named after V.V. Dokuchaiev). The experimental field is located within the land use of the educational and experimental farm of V.V. Dokuchaiev Kharkiv National Agrarian University in the north-eastern part of Kharkiv region.

Sowing was carried out in the optimal time for the culture of the first decade of April. Collectible samples were sown by hand under a marker, two rows 1 m long each with a row spacing of 0.15 m, at the rate of 100 grains per running meter. The estimated area of the plot for each sample was 1 m2. All phenological observations were performed in accordance with the guidelines for the study of wheat collections.

The species were used as starting material of 76 samples Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum, Triticum monococcum, Triticum boeoticum, Triticum sinskajae, Triticum timopheevii, Triticum militinae, Triticum dicoccum, Triticum ispahanicum, Triticum persicum, Triticum turgidum, Triticum aethiopicum, Triticum spelta, Triticum compactum and amphidiploid specimens. The source material was obtained from the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine (NCGRRU) and has a number of economically valuable features. Samples were introduced from different ecological and geographical areas (Tables 1-3).

n/a National catalog number Institution registration number Sample name Variety Country of origin
Triticum aestivum
1 UA 0100098 IR 08517S Sunnan var. lutescens SWE
2 UA 0101113 IR 11742S Prokhorovka var. lutescens RUS
3 UA 0104110 IR 12602S Kharkiv 30 var. lutescens UKR
4 UA 0106145 IR 13173S L 501 var. lutescens RUS
5 UA 0110938 IR 15164S Simkodamironovskaya var. lutescens UKR
6 UA 0111008 IR 15206S Yrym var. erythrospermum KAZ
7 UA 0105661 IR 12049S CIGM.250- var. erythrospermum MEX
8 UA 0110937 IR 14892S Phyto 14/08 var. erythrospermum UKR
9 UA 0110936 IR 14891S Phyto 33/08 var. erythrospermum UKR
10 UA 0111123 IR 15595S L 685-12 var. lutescens UKR
Triticum durum Desf
11 UA0201229 IR 12313S Zolotko var. muticohordeiforme UKR
12 UA0201199 IR 13580S Orenburgskaya 21 var hordeiforme RUS
13 UA0201431 IR 14943S Nurly var. hordeiforme KAZ
14 UA0201201 IR 14045S Slavuta var. leucomelan UKR
15 UA0200923 IR 12773S Bukuría var. melanopus UKR
16 UA0201428 IR 14941S Altun Segus var. hordeiforme KAZ
17 UA0201386 IR 14438S Metiska var. melanopus UKR
18 UA0201452 IR 15566S Novacia var hordeiforme UKR
19 UA0201453 IR 15548S Diana var. hordeiforme UKR
20 UA0201426 IR 14937S Kustanayskaya 30 var. hordeiforme KAZ

Table 1. Characteristics of the studying samples Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum.

n/a National catalog number Form Variety Country of origin
1 UA0300104 monococcum var. vulgare BGR
2 UA 0300221 monococcum var. monococcum AZE
3 UA 0300223 monococcum var. vulgare ALB
4 UA 0300254 monococcum var. monococcum ARM
5 UA 0300282 monococcum var. monococcum HUN
6 UA 0300310 monococcum var. hohensteinii GEO
7 UA 0300311 monococcum var. nigricultum SYR
8 UA 0300313 monococcum - HUN
9 UA0300402 boeticum var. boeticum UKR
10 UA0300224 sinskajae var. sinskajae RUS
11 UA0300545 timopheevii var. nigrum BLR
12 UA0300257 militinae var. militinae RUS
13 UA0300008 dicoccum var. aeruginosum RUS
14 UA0300327 dicoccum var. aeruginosum RUS
15 UA0300407 dicoccum var. nudidicoccum UKR
16 UA0300406 dicoccum var. nudirufum UKR
17 UA0300199 dicoccum var.pseudogunbadi IRN
18 UA0300009 dicoccum var.serbicum RUS
19 UA0300183 dicoccum var.serbicum RUS
20 UA0300021 dicoccum var. volgense KAZ
21 IU070615 dicoccum var.submajus BGR
22 IU0700070 ispahanicum var. ispahanicum IRN
23 UA0300490 persicum var. persicum GEO
24 UA0300495 persicum var. rubiginosum GEO
25 UA0300110 turgidum var. plinianum KGZ
26 UA0300237 turgidum var.rubroathrum GRC
27 UA0300376 turgidum - BGR
28 IU070589 aethiopicum var.nigriviolaceum ERI
29 UA0300238 spelta var.subbaktiaricum UZB
30 UA0300304 spelta var.album AUS
31 UA0300387 spelta var.caeruleum CAN
32 UA0300388 spelta var.duhamelianum CAN
33 UA0300391 spelta var.caeruleum CAN
34 UA0300392 spelta var.alefeldii CAN
35 UA0300398 spelta var.arduini UKR
36 UA0300443 spelta var.caeruleum RUS
37 UA0300546 spelta var.caeruleum RUS
38 UA0300240 compactum var.erinaceum ARM
39 UA0300354 compactum var.pseudoicterinum GRC
40 UA0300368 compactum var.humboldtinflatum CHN
41 UA0300528 compactum var.kerkianum GEO

Table 2. Characteristics of the studied samples of the genus Triticum L.

n/a National catalog number Sample name Pedigree Country of origin Institution of origin
1 UA0500004 PAG-12 T. persicum × T.monococcum RUS VIR
2 UA0500007 PAG-20 T. timococcum × T.monococcum RUS VIR
3 UA0500008 PAG-31 T. dicoccum и-329428, Poland × T. monococcum k-20636, Ispaniya RUS VIR, DOS VIR
4 UA0500009 PAG-32 T. dicoccum к-14055, Armenia × T. monococcum и-452639, Czech Republic RUS VIR, DOS VIR
5 UA0500010 PEAG T. dicoccum и-244569, Germany × Ae. Tauschii л-110 RUS VIR, DOS VIR
6 UA0500014 Triticum × kiharae T. timococcum  × Ae. Tauschii JPN  
7 UA0500018 Haynatricum АD (T.dicoccum-D.villosum) RUS Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazeva, Russia
8 UA0500022 АD8 T. dicoccum × Ae. triuncialis AZE Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Azerbaijan
9 UA0500023 PAG-13 T. dicoccum × T. monococcum RUS VIR
10 UA0500024 PAG-39 T. dicoccum × к-150007, Польша х T.sinskajae RUS VIR, DOS VIR
11 UA0500025 Triticum × timococcum T. timopheevii  × T. monococcum RUS Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazeva, Russia
12 UA0500026 Triticum × sinskourarticum T. sinskajae × T.urartu ARM Armenian
СHI
13 UA0500043 PAG -4 T. durum v. Stebutii k-16477 × T. monococcum v. macedonicum k-18140 RUS VIR
14 UA0500044 PAG-7 T. durum × T. monococcum RUS VIR
15 UA0300107 - T. timopheevii × timopheevii - -

Table 3. Characteristics of the studied amphidiploid samples of the genus Triticum L.

Results

During the research of economically valuable traits in the collection samples of spring wheat, a significant positive indicator of asymmetry (As=0.06-3.53, p ≤ 0.05) was found in all studied samples in terms of grain weight per ear (Table 4). Significant positive asymmetry was observed in terms of ear length in samples UA0300391, CIGM.250-, Phyto33/08, UA0300223 and sample UA0300406 (respectively, As=3.32; 1.91; 1.40; 1.35; 1.31 ) by the length of the spines in samples Phyto 33/08, Bucuria, Diana and sample UA 0300237 (respectively, As=2.41; 2.39; 2.12; 1.74; p ≤ 0.05); by the number of spikelets in the ear in samples of Phyto 33/08, CIGM.250-, L 501, UA0300104, UA0300327 (respectively, As=2.32; 2.22; 1.47; 1.88; 1.39; p ≤ 0.05); by the number of productive spikelets in the ear in samples UA0300391, UA0300104, Phyto 33/08, CIGM.250-, Triticum × sinskourarticum (respectively, As=2.64; 2.19; 2.18; 2.14; 1.37; p ≤ 0.05); according to the number of grains in one ear samples L 685-12, Kharkiv 30, UA0300104, UA0300406, UA0300391 (respectively, As=3.09; 3.04; 2.34; 2.01; 1.95; p ≤ 0.05); according to the indicator, the mass of one ear in the samples of Kharkiv 30, Slavuta, Metiska, UA03000009, UA0300104 (respectively, As=4.27; 3.28; 2.69; 2.25; 1.84; p ≤ 0,05); in terms of grain weight from one ear, positive asymmetry was recorded in samples UA0300490, Slavuta, Kharkivska 30, UA 0300407, Metiska (respectively, As=5.14; 3.25; 3.18; 2.40; 2.16; p ≤ 0,05).

  Sign  
Collectible sample Ear length Length of awns The number of spikelets in the ear Number of productive spikelets The number of grains in one ear Weight of one ear Masa grain from one ear
Triticum aestivum
Sunnan 0.30 0.19 0.61 0.39 0.45 0.16
Prokhorovka 0.21 0.30 0.12 0.28 1.61 0.12
Kharkiv 30 0.09 0.65 0.80 3.04* 4.27* 3.18*
L 501 0.69 1.47* 1.10 0.55 1.04 1.39
Simkodamironovskaya 0.70 0.48 0.58 0.32 0.38 0.23
Yrym 0.31 0.17 0.10 0.42 0.27 0.58 0.39
CIGM.250- 1.91* 1.22 2.22* 2.14* 0.39 0.60 0.73
Phyto 14/08 0.24 0.05 0.06 0.46 0.13 0.81 0.49
Phyto 33/08 1.40* 2.41* 2.32* 2.18* 0.35 0.60 0.72
L 685-12 0.62 - 0.34 1.91 3.09* 0.34 0.52
Average in appearance 0.65 0.96 0.81 1.03 0.88 1.07 0.79
Triticum durum
Zolotko 0.92   0.11 1.14 0.86 0.39 0.83
Orenburgskaya 21 0.15 0.65 0.34 0.47 0.93 0.42 1.53
Nurly 0.21 0.18 0.17 0.36 0.11 0.03 0.09
Slavuta 0.43 0.49 0.21 0.01 1.84 3.28* 3.25*
Bukuría 0.54 2.39* 0.48 0.69 0.07 1.34 0.06
Altun Segus 0.34 0.05 0.34 0.34 0.74 0.83 0.72
Metiska 0.16 0.05 0.88 1.27 1.93 2.69* 2.16
Novacia 0.16 0.20 0.55 0.01 0.12 1.14 0.23
Diana 0.29 2.12* 0.96 0.23 0.17 0.17 -0.10
Kustanayskaya 30 0.20 0.03 0.33 -0.70 0.07 1.30 1.26
Average in appearance 0.34 0.68 0.44 0.38 0.68 1.16 1.00
Uncommon types of wheat
Tr. ispahanicum IU0700070 0.53 0.32 0.04 0.43 1.26 1.59 2.14
Tr. aethiopicum IU070589 0.61 1.73 0.02 0.07 0.59 1.86 1.69
Tr. sinskajae UA0300224 0.18 0.33 0.16 0.01 0.32 0.29 0.06
Tr. timopheeva UA0300545 0.48 0.04 0.11 0.28 0.01 0.21 2.11
Tr. militinae UA0300257 0.30 0.36 0.16 0.78 0.39 0.06 0.19
Average in appearance 0.42 0.56 0.10 0.31 0.51 0.80 1.24
Triticum мonococcum
UA0300104 0.24 0.80 1.88* 2.19* 2.34* 1.84* 2.12
UA0300221 0.37 0.42 1.12 0.67 0.22 1.10 0.70
UA0300223 1.35* 0.34 0.25 0.20 0.38 0.31 0.54
UA0300254 0.49 0.21 0.27 0.26 0.04 0.62 0.03
UA0300282 0.35 0.61 0.27 0.29 0.42 0.42 0.42
UA0300310 1.10 0.07 0.65 0.05 0.14 0.48 1.42
UA0300313 0.64 0.47 0.27 0.57 0.41 1.03 0.28
Average in appearance 0.65 0.42 0.67 0.60 0.56 0.83 0.79
Triticum dicoccum
UA0300327 0.59 0.29 1.39* 0.82 0.31 0.56 0.55
UA0300407 0.13 0.49 0.46 1.08 0.68 0.75 2.40*
UA0300406 1.31* 0.18 0.92 1.09 2.01* 0.46 1.00
UA0300199 0.42 0.04 0.17 0.72 0.10 0.16 0.09
UA0300009 0.44 0.17 0.41 0.62 0.18 2.25* 0.29
UA0300183 0.54 0.04 0.21 0.10 0.31 0.06 0.23
UA0300021 0.01 0.32 0.01 0.86 0.20 0.27 0.22
IU070615 0.34 - 0.22 0.29 0.66 0.54 0.15
Average in appearance 0.47 0.22 0.47 0.70 0.56 0.63 0.62
Triticum spelta
UA0300238 0.88 0.61 0.98 0.02 0.81 1.37 -0.05
UA0300304 0.05 - 0.21 0.36 0.50 0.26 -0.46
UA0300387 0.39 0.12 0.08 1.08 1.15 0.63 0.01
UA0300388 0.64 - 0.01 0.53 0.25 0.59 -0.23
UA0300391 3.32* 0.09 1.41 2.64* 1.95* 1.78 1.27
UA0300392 0.21 - 0.21 0.01 0.37 0.89 0.74
UA0300398 0.98 0.57 0.42 0.35 0.41 0.31 0.21
UA0300443 0.08 1.02 0.51 1.41 0.56 0.10 1.25
UA0300546 0.52 0.18 0.39 0.38 0.64 0.98 0.82
Average in appearance 0.79 0.43 0.47 0.75 0.74 0.77 0.39
Triticum compactum
UA0300240 0.10 0.43 0.31 0.65 0.06 0.17 0.17
UA0300354 0.28 0.32 0.29 0.42 0.76 0.47 0.56
UA0300368 0.31 - 0.20 0.35 0.31 0.36 0.30
Average in appearance 0.23 0.38 0.27 0.47 0.38 0.33 0.34
Triticum turgidum
UA0300110 0.23 0.10 0.24 0.18 0.53 0.76 0.70
UA0300237 0.36 1.74* 0.08 -0.17 0.35 0.76 0.62
UA0300376 0.34 0.23 0.14 0.05 0.71 1.29 0.31
Average in appearance 0.31 0.69 0.15 0.02 0.53 0.94 0.54
Triticum persicum
UA0300490 0.09 0.49 0.15 0.04 0.52 0.76 5.14*
UA0300495 0.12 0.08 0.15 0.71 1.38 1.71 1.91
Average in appearance 0.11 0.29 0.15 0.38 0.95 1.24 3.53
Wheat amphidiploids
PAG-12 0.22 0.14 0.60 0.58 0.53 1.13 0.71
PAG -20 0.01 1.11 0.69 0.08 0.33 0.30 0.59
PAG -31 0.79 0.02 0.81 1.03 1.02 0.36 1.50
PAG -32 0.75 0.12 1.00 0.16 0.26 0.51 0.12
Triticum x timococcum 0.01 0.52 0.01 0.54 0.85 0.15 0.93
PAG -4 0.14 0.07 0.23 0.99 1.28 0.82 0.77
PAG -7 0.04 0.48 0.11 0.85 0.34 0.61 0.16
PEAG 0.29 0.20 0.57 0.61 0.11 0.76 0.54
Haynatricum 0.08 0.20 0.29 0.29 0.02 0.33 0.08
AD 8 0.03 0.22 0.86 0.95 0.51 0.71 2.05
PAG -39 0.27 0.22 0.17 0.16 0.76 0.71 0.46
Triticum x kiharae 0.15 0.06 0.83 0.47 0.58 0.30 0.61
UA0300107 0.66 0.44 0.94 0.58 0.05 0.63 0.57
Triticum x sinskourarticum 0.48 1.03 0.87 1.37* 0.23 0.64 0.36
Average in appearance 0.28 0.35 0.57 0.60 0.49 0.57 0.61

Table 4. Asymmetry of distribution of economically valuable features of collection samples of spring wheat on average for 2018-2021.

The high positive indicator of asymmetry indicates a tendency of variability of certain features in these samples towards smaller values of the manifestation of the feature. All other sample-feature combinations showed little or no asymmetry. According to the indicators of asymmetry, certain differences in the nature of the distribution of economically valuable traits at interspecific levels have been established (Table 4).

High asymmetry was observed in the species Triticum spelta, Triticum monococcum, Triticum aestivum (respectively, As=0.79; 0.65; 0.65; p ≤ 0.05). Species Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum, Triticum durum were characterized by a positive asymmetry in the length of the awns (As=0.96; 0.69 and 0.68, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The species Triticum aestivum and Triticum monococcum showed an average level of asymmetry (As=0.81; 0.67; p ≤ 0.05) in terms of the number of spikelets in the ear. For the species Triticum aestivum and Triticum spelta, a high level of asymmetry was also noted in terms of the number of productive spikelets in the ear (respectively, As=1.03; 0.75; p ≤ 0.05). For the species Triticum persicum and Triticum aestivum in terms of the number of grains in one ear and the weight of grain from one ear, the level of asymmetry showed high values of As was 0.95, respectively; 0.88 and 1.24; 1.07. In terms of grain weight per ear, a high asymmetry index was recorded in the species Triticum persicum and amounted to 3.53; p ≤ 0.05.

The presence of a certain indicator of asymmetry in the samples of the studied species of spring wheat indicates a tendency of variability of the studied traits in the direction of the corresponding values (smaller or larger). The presence of a significant and medium level of asymmetry allows us to talk about the heterogeneity of the studied plant material and determines the possibility of selection by any of the studied features. Slight or absent asymmetry may indicate the stability of the symptom. According to researchers, the greatest value for selection are samples that are characterized by high variability with slight asymmetry. A high level of variability contributes to the effective selection of certain traits, and slight or no asymmetry can serve as an auxiliary indicator to achieve trait stability. The results obtained by us indicate that all samples of the studied collection of spring wheat meet these criteria and are a promising material for the selection of spring wheat in different areas of use. Analysis of the nature of the distribution of economically valuable traits revealed a significant positive excess for some collection samples of spring wheat (Table 5).

  Sign
Collectible sample ear length length of awns the number of spikelets in the ear Number of productive spikelets Number of grains in one ear Weight of one ear Masa grain from one ear
Triticum aestivum 0.65 0.96 0.81 1.03 0.88 1.07 0.79
Triticum durum 0.34 0.68 0.44 0.38 0.68 1.16 1.00
Uncommon types of wheat 0.42 0.56 0.10 0.31 0.51 0.80 1.24
Triticum мonococcum 0.65 0.42 0.67 0.60 0.56 0.83 0.79
Triticum dicoccum 0.47 0.22 0.47 0.70 0.56 0.63 0.62
Triticum spelta 0.79 0.43 0.47 0.75 0.74 0.77 0.39
Triticum compactum 0.23 0.38 0.27 0.47 0.38 0.33 0.34
Triticum turgidum 0.31 0.69 0.15 0.02 0.53 0.94 0.54
Triticum persicum 0.11 0.29 0.15 0.38 0.95 1.24 3.53
Wheat amphidiploids 0.28 0.35 0.57 0.60 0.49 0.57 0.61

Table 5. Asymmetry of distribution of economically valuable features of spring wheat depending on the species.

So in the sample UA 0300391 (Table 6) the value of excess in terms of ear length is 14,65, p ≤ 0,05. For the collection sample of Bucuria, a significant positive excess in the length of the awns was recorded, which amounted to 11,20 p ≤ 0,05. This level of excess indicates that the environmental conditions in which the studies were conducted, contributed to the manifestation of the average values of the characteristics in the respective samples.

  Sign  
  Collectible sample ear length length of awns the number of spikelets in the ear Number of productive spikelets The number of grains in one ear Weight of one ear Masa grain from one ear
Triticum aestivum
Sunnan 0.37   0.78 0.32 4.11 0.38 0.51
Prokhorovka 0.84   0.01 0.69 2.18 3.62 1.29
Kharkiv 30 0.32 - 0.54 1.10 29.3 20.8 15.6
L 501 0.61   2.60 2.21 0.57 1.05 2.23
Simkodamironovskaya 1.38 - 0.68 0.50 2.19 0.99 1.38
Yrym 0.61 0.92 0.40 0.29 0.19 0.69 0.62
CIGM.250- 6.07 4.15 8.76 7.22 0.80 0.61 0.07
Phyto 14/08 0.77 0.52 1.12 0.15 0.92 0.29 0.03
Phyto 33/08 0.44 0.42 1.31 0.28 0.04 0.27 0.10
L 685-12 0.25   0.83 7.14 29.41 0.82 0.89
Average in appearance 1.17 1.50 1.70 1.99 6.97 2.95 2.27
Triticum durum
Zolotko 0.77   0.61 2.585 6.55 0.07 4.39
Orenburgskaya 21 0.93 0.01 0.69 -0.41 3.25 2.69 4.05
Nurly 0.82 0.06 0.64 0.61 2.45 0.91 3.29
Slavuta 0.19 0.60 1.02 0.01 5.18 10.70 10.71
Bukuría 0.12 11.20 0.82 0.22 0.79 0.89 1.07
Altun Segus 0.59 0.67 0.94 0.27 0.31 1.49 0.12
Metiska 0.53 1.00 1.47 1.62 4.33 8.96 5.01
Novacia 2.27 1.00 0.49 0.12 0.96 0.02 0.44
Diana 0.95 0.02 1.10 0.03 0.83 0.22 1.31
Kustanayskaya 30 1.19 0.90 0.73 0.49 0.40 2.39 2.86
Average in appearance 0.84 1.72 0.85 0.40 1.90 2.84 2.97
Uncommon types of wheat
Tr. ispahanicum IU0700070 2.01 0.73 0.71 0.59 3.18 5.60 7.84
Tr. aethiopicum IU070589 0.40 6.35 1.3 0.05 0.80 4.51 3.92
Tr. sinskajae UA0300224 1.14 0.49 0.47 0.33 0.67 -0.755 0.55
Tr. timopheeva UA0300545 0.81 0.06 1.00 0.89 0.86 0.65 6.1
Tr. militinae UA0300257 0.40 0.03 0.58 0.25 1.06 0.08 0.03
Average in appearance 0.95 1.53 0.81 0.17 0.71 2.02 3.46
Triticum мonococcum
UA0300104 0.62 0.41 3.80 5.09 6.17 4.06 4.99
UA0300221 0.67 1.42 1.48 0.29 1.02 0.06 0.65
UA0300223 5.10 0.15 0.52 0.40 0.46 0.86 0.40
UA0300254 0.44 0.12 0.44 0.43 0.12 0.41 0.74
UA0300282 0.98 0.57 0.08 1.22 0.89 0.16 0.25
UA0300310 1.01 1.54 0.45 0.49 0.44 0.32 2.32
UA0300313 3.59 0.42 0.90 0.13 0.14 1.21 0.68
Average in appearance 1.77 0.66 1.10 1.15 1.32 1.01 1.43
Triticum dicoccum
UA0300327 0.98 1.09 4.1 1.39 0.71 0.70 1.24
UA0300407 0.04 0.23 1.65 1.88 0.45 0.73 9.42
UA0300406 1.10 0.49 0.31 0.72 5.81 0.54 1.04
UA0300199 0.10 1.19 0.73 0.15 1.31 0.71 1.32
UA0300009 0.86 1.05 0.59 0.03 0.10 9.16 0.65
UA0300183 0.87 0.90 1.01 0.92 0.71 0.79 0.72
UA0300021 0.41 0.91 1.02 1.315 0.85 -0.5 0.61
IU070615 0.41  - 0.99 0.4 17.57 0.26 0.04
Average in appearance 0.60 0.84 1.30 0.62 3.44 1.37 1.88
Triticum spelta
UA0300238 1.29 1.08 1.7 0.59 0.90 1.36 0.02
UA0300304 0.80  ‑ 0.81 0.48 10.96 0.50 3.44
UA0300387 0.84 0.81 0.84 2.22 1.62 0.07 0.04
UA0300388 0.61  ‑ 1.50 0.10 1.64 3.97 0.13
UA0300391 14.65 0.83 3.01 11.8 6.26 10.42 5.84
UA0300392 0.01  ‑ 0.19 0.11 3.5 0.55 1.16
UA0300398 1.15 0.23 0.71 0.61 1.07 1.27 1.34
UA0300443 0.83 2.33 0.7 4.53 1.02 1.03 3.3
UA0300546 0.38 0.16 0.38 0.51 0.24 0.31 0.28
Average in appearance 2.28 0.91 1.09 2.17 2.79 2.16 1.73
Triticum compactum
UA0300240 1.71 0.73 0.65 0.13 0.47 1.10 0.33
UA0300354 0.22 0.37 1.12 0.70 0.20 0.52 0.08
UA0300368 0.14   0.79 0.21 4.56 0.08 0.55
Average in appearance 0.69 0.55 0.85 0.35 1.74 0.57 0.32
Triticum turgidum
UA0300110 0.74 1.03 0.56 0.36 0.74 0.91 0.91
UA0300237 0.61 6.46 1.34 0.26 0.67 0.3 0.51
UA0300376 0.16 0.74 0.49 0.4 1.68 3.48 0.30
Average in appearance 0.50 2.74 0.80 0.34 1.03 1.56 0.57
Triticum persicum
UA0300490 0.36 0.49 0.18 0.63 0.59 0.06 1.81
UA0300495 0.79 0.67 1.26 1.14 1.92 3.29 4.27
Average in appearance 0.58 0.58 0.72 0.89 1.26 1.68 3.04
Wheat amphidiploids
PAG -12 0.17 0.35 0.04 0.39 0.21 2.32 0.47
PAG -20 1.00 1.26 0.22 1.22 0.18 0.15 0.62
PAG -31 0.30 0.48 0.11 1.41 0.92 0.49 3.34
PAG -32 0.50 1.09 5.10 1.01 0.64 0.40 0.49
Triticum x timococcum 1.04 0.49 0.09 0.07 1.135 1.28 1.46
PAG -4 0.02 0.09 0.81 0.83 2.39 0.27 0.26
PAG -7 0.74 0.07 0.76 1.47 2.70 0.81 3.02
PEAG 0.35 0.10 0.30 1.02 2.07 8.41 0.23
Haynatricum 0.34 0.64 0.01 0.51 0.98 0.57 0.98
AD 8 0.25 0.72 0.91 1.23 0.56 0.17 8.77
PAG -39 0.23 0.79 0.66 0.20 1.43 0.21 0.31
Triticum x kiharae 0.33 1.09 0.79 0.32 0.57 0.62 0.59
UA0300107 2.54 0.60 1.25 1.30 0.72 0.29 0.09
Triticum x sinskourarticum 0.14 4.86 0.73 3.74 0.71 0.51 0.94
Average in appearance 0.57 0.90 0.84 1.05 1.09 1.15 1.54

Table 6. The value of the excess distribution of economically valuable features of the collection samples of spring wheat on average 2018-2021.

Analysis of the nature of the distribution at the interspecific level showed the presence of significant positive excess in samples of the species Triticum spelta in terms of ear length (Ex=2.28; p ≤ 0.05).

According to the indicator, the length of the awns (Ex=2.74; p ≤ 0.05) in samples of the species Triticum turgidum; the number of productive spikelets (Ex=2.17; p ≤ 0.05) was observed in Triticum spelta. Samples of the species Triticum aestivum showed a positive Ex in terms of the number of grains in one ear and the weight of one ear (respectively Ex=6.97; 2.95; p ≤ 0.05). In terms of grain weight from one ear, positive excess was observed in uncommon samples and amounted to 3.46.

Therefore, plants in populations of these species of spring wheat are characterized mainly by the average values of these characteristics (Table 7).

  Sign  
Collectible sample ear length length of awns the number of spikelets in the ear Number of productive spikelets The number of grains in one ear Weight of one ear Masa grain from one ear
Triticum aestivum 1.17 1.50 1.70 1.99 6.97* 2.95* 2.27
Triticum durum 0.84 1.72 0.85 0.40 1.90 2.84 2.97
Uncommon types of wheat 0.95 1.53 0.81 0.17 0.71 2.02 3.46*
Triticum мonococcum 1.77 0.66 1.10 1.15 1.32 1.01 1.43
Triticum dicoccum 0.60 0.84 1.30 0.62 3.44 1.37 1.88
Triticum spelta 2.28* 0.91 1.09 2.17* 2.79 2.16 1.73
Triticum compactum 0.69 0.55 0.85 0.35 1.74 0.57 0.32
Triticum turgidum 0.50 2.74* 0.80 0.34 1.03 1.56 0.57
Triticum persicum 0.58 0.58 0.72 0.89 1.26 1.68 3.04
Wheat amphidiploids 0.57 0.90 0.84 1.05 1.09 1.15 1.54

Table 7. The value of the excess distribution of economically valuable traits depending on the type of spring wheat.

The results of research revealed the variability of collection samples of spring wheat on economically valuable traits, the level of which varied depending on the genotype, species and a certain trait. All structural elements play an important role in the formation of a certain harvest, namely: the number of productive ears, the mass of grain from the ear, the mass of grain from one ear (Fig. 1).

ukrainian-journal-ecology-spring-wheat

Fig 1. Variability of spring wheat collection by ear length at the interspecific level. Mdn-median; min-the minimum value; max-the maximum value.

The study of the productivity of samples of spring wheat in the Kharkiv region showed that the plants, depending on the countries of origin and their characteristics, reacted differently to arid conditions. The value of the median on the length of the ear ranged from 3,00 [2,50; 4,00] in the sample UA0300257 Triticum militinae to 11,00 [10,00: 13,00] in the sample UA 0300388. The highest indicators were recorded in the samples of the species Triticum spelta, namely UA 0300546 and UA0300392, respectively (Mdn=10,75 [7,00: 17,50] and [Mdn=10,00] [6,00: 14,00].

According to the indicator, the length of the awns varied from 1,00 [0,80: 2,00] in the Diana sample to 12.00 [10: 13,5] in the IU070589 Triticum aethiopicum sample. A significant positive indicator was observed in samples of Triticum durum, namely Diana and Kustanaiska 30 (Mdn=12,00 [1,00: 13,50] and (Mdn=11,90] [10,00: 14,00]) (Fig. 2).

ukrainian-journal-ecology-wheat-collection

Fig 2. Variability of spring wheat collection by length of spines at interspecific level. Mdn-median; min-the minimum value; max-the maximum value.

The highest number of productive spikelets was determined in samples of the species Triticum monococum, namely: UA 0300310 Mdn 17, 00 [13.00: 21.00], UA 0300221 Mdn 16, 00 [13.00: 21.00], and amphidiploid sample spring PAG-7 Mdn 17.00 [8.00: 21.00], and the lowest value was observed in the sample PAG-12 (Mdn=5.00 [3.00: 14.00] respectively).

The highest values for the number of grains in the ear were observed in the samples Gold of the species Triticum durum (Mdn=34.00 [9.00: 16.00] pcs), the sample Prokhorovka of the species Triticum aestium (Mdn=32.00 [28.00: 36.00] pcs.) and sample UA 0300238 species Triticum spelta (Mdn=30.00 [23.00: 41.00] pcs.) By the number of grains in one ear, the lowest values of the trait were observed in amphidiploid species, namely in samples of Triticum x sinskourarticum, PAG-12, PAG-31, PEAG (Mdn=6.0 [2.00: 14.00]) pcs., 8.0 [4.00: 9.00] pcs., 11.00 [5.00: 26.00] pcs, 11.00 [4.00: 32.00] pcs respectively) (Fig. 3, 4).

ukrainian-journal-ecology-productive-spikelets

Fig 3. Variability of spring wheat collection by the number of productive spikelets at the interspecific level. Mdn-median; min-the minimum value; max-the maximum value.

ukrainian-journal-ecology-interspecific-level

Fig 4. Variability of spring wheat collection by the number of grains in the ear at the interspecific level. Mdn-median; min-the minimum value; max-the maximum value.

By the mass of one ear, the highest median values were observed in the sample of the species Triticum spelta (Mdn=2.26 [1.47:2.74] g), Orenburg 21 species of Triticum durum (Mdn=2.14 [1.60:2.50)] d) and the Sunnan sample of the species Triticum aestium (Mdn=1.92 [1.20:1.93] d), and the minimum value for the same indicator was recorded in amphidiploid species, namely: AD 8, Triticum x timococcum, Triticum x sinskourarticum [Mdn=0.32 [0.11:0.75] g; Mdn=0.43 [0.21:0.81] g; Mdn=0.54 [0.28:0.86] g) (Fig. 5).

ukrainian-journal-ecology-interspecific-level

Fig 5. Variability of spring wheat collection by weight of one ear at the interspecific level. Mdn-median; min-the minimum value; max-the maximum value.

In terms of grain weight from one ear, the highest value of the median was observed in the sample of the species Triticum durum, namely: Orenburg 21 (Mdn=1.68 [0.70:2.10] g), UA 0300238 species Triticum spelta (Mdn=1.26 [1.05:1.81] g) and the Sunnan sample of Triticum aestium (Mdn=1.21 [0.80:2.02] g), and the minimum value in terms of grain weight per ear was observed in amphidiploid species, namely: AD 8, Triticum x sinskourarticum, UA0300257 Tr. militinae (Mdn=0.12 [0.01:1.17] g; Mdn=0.13[0.02:0.26] g; Mdn=0.23 [0.01:0.52] g) (Fig. 6).

ukrainian-journal-ecology-grain-weight

Fig 6. Variability of spring wheat collection by grain weight of one ear at the interspecific level. Mdn-median; min-the minimum value; max-the maximum value.

Conclusion

Thus, a high level of variability of economically valuable traits of spring wheat has been established, which indicates a significant genetic diversity of the studied samples and makes it possible to plan the selection for any of the studied traits. A positive asymmetry was observed in samples of the species Triticum monococcum, Triticum spelta, Triticum aestivum As=0.79; 0.65; 0.65; p ≤ 0.05.

The presence of a certain indicator of asymmetry in the studied samples of Triticum L. indicates a tendency of variability of the studied features in the direction of the corresponding values (smaller or larger).

The presence of a significant and medium level of asymmetry allows us to talk about the heterogeneity of the studied plant material and determines the possibility of selection by any of the studied features.

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Author Info

Yu.Yu. Chuprina1*, I.V. Klymenko2, L.V. Golovan1, I.M. Buzina1, O.V. Koliada1, V.H. Mikheev1, О.О. Mikheeva1, N.P. Turchynova1 and I.O. Derevyanko1
 
1State Biotechnology University, Kharkiv, Ukraine
2The Plant Production Institute, a.V.Ya. Yuryev of NAAS, Ukraine
 

Citation: Chuprina, Yu.Yu., Klymenko, I.V., Golovan, L.V., Buzina, I.M., Koliada, O.V., Mikheev, V.H., Mikheeva, О.О., Turchynova, N.P., Derevyanko, I.O. (2021). Initial material of hybrid clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) of various ecogeographical origins in the Carpathian region. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11 (8), 156-166.

Received Date: Sep 28, 2021 / Accepted Date: Oct 22, 2021 / Published Date: Oct 25, 2021

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.