Research - (2021) Volume 11, Issue 8

Formation of flour quality indicators in different winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes depending on abiotic and anthropogenic factors

O. Demydov, I. Pravdziva*, V. Hudzenko, A. Rysin, H. Volohdina, A. Siroshtan, T. Yurchenko, O. Zaima and I. Misiura
 
*Correspondence: I. Pravdziva, The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine Tsentralne village, Obukhiv district, Kyiv region, 08, Ukraine, Email:

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Abstract

One of the main tasks of agricultural science and production is to increase grain production, which meets the requirements of world standards. The quality of bread wheat grain significantly depends on the realization of genetic characteristics of the variety in interaction with soil and climatic conditions and cropping practice. Therefore, conducting research to determine the impact of abiotic and anthropogenic factors on the formation of flour quality indicators of winter bread wheat is necessary and relevant. The purpose of the study is to establish the peculiarities of flour quality indicators formation depending on hydrothermal conditions of different growing seasons and sowing dates after different preceding crops in the central part of the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. To achieve this goal the following methods were used: field, laboratory, statistical. The growing seasons of the study were contrasting in hydrothermal regime with an uneven distribution of precipitation by months. Significant variability of flour quality indicators of winter bread wheat depending on conditions of the years of the research was noted. Reliably significant influence of genotype on all flour quality indicators was established (15.3-26.6%). Hydrothermal conditions of the growing seasons had the greatest effect on sedimentation volume and gluten deformation index (31.7 and 33.6%, respectively), and the least effect (3.8%) on protein content. The maximum effect of the preceding crops and sowing dates was found on the protein content (5.0; 1.8%, respectively), the minimum on the gluten deformation index (0.8; 0.01%, respectively). There was a significant (7.0-12.9%) influence of the interaction of genotype × growing season factors on all studied characteristics of flour quality of winter bread wheat. By individual genotypes, different ratios of the influence of growing season conditions, sowing dates, preceding crops, and their interactions on the formation of flour quality characters were revealed. The maximum content of protein (13.4%) and wet gluten (28.9%) on average for all growing seasons were after the soybean as preceding crop, the highest sedimentation volume (67 ml) was after green manure, and the lowest these quality indicators (12.5%, 26.8% and 63 ml, respectively) were after corn. There was a general tendency to increase the sedimentation volume, protein and gluten content with shift in sowing dates from September 26 to October 16. The variety MIP Kniazhna with a complex of high flour quality indicators has been identified.

Keywords

Winter bread wheat, Protein content, Gluten content, Sedimentation volume, Gluten deformation index, Hydrothermal regime, Sowing date, Preceding crop, ANOVA.

Introduction

Wheat is one of the main crops for human nutrition, as the main source of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and other essential substances (Denčić et al., 2011). Increasing the gross harvest of high-quality grain is a priority for agricultural science and production (Zhemela and Kurochka, 2012; Gomez-Becerra et al., 2010). Currently, a significant percentage of wheat grown is flour milling (Kim et al., 2020). One of the main indicators of flour quality is protein content, wet gluten content and gluten deformation index. These quality indicators determine the nutritional value of bakery, cereal and pasta products, and also play an important role in industrial use (Karaduman et al., 2021; Doneva et al., 2018). Protein is one of the most important components of wheat grain with a range of variation from 7 to 17% and gluten content is almost 80-90% of the total protein (Koppel and Ingver, 2010). It is gluten that participates in the formation of the mechanical basis of the dough and the structure of the bread crumb structure depends on its quality (Cappelli et al., 2018).

The sedimentation volume is an informative character of quality, as it is an indirect method of assessing the technological and baking properties of bread wheat flour (Sasani et al., 2020). The method of determining the sedimentation volume is simple, inexpensive, so it can be used at all stages of breeding process, especially in the early stages, which allows effectively select promising wheat bread genotypes.

The quality of wheat grain is formed due to the realization of genetic characteristics of the variety in interaction with soil and climatic conditions and cropping practice (Nadew, 2018). Realization of the genetic potential of the variety is possible only under favorable environmental conditions and with using appropriate agro-technological measures (Babiker et al., 2017). Therefore, conducting research to determine the impact of abiotic and anthropogenic factors on the formation of flour quality indicators of winter wheat is necessary and relevant. Preceding crops directly affect both yield and quality of winter wheat (Ergashev and Khalikov, 2017). Analysis of crops sown in Ukraine for 2017-2019 indicates that significant areas of winter wheat as the main food grain crop are sown after such crops as sunflower, corn, soybean, and rapeseed (Prokopenko, 2020). Different harvesting times of these preceding crops in farming, variations in water and temperature regimes of the autumn period in different years require the study of different sowing dates for winter crops (Gudzenko, 2019). Using this approach, it is possible to model the contrast conditions of growing due to the action of the same abiotic and biotic factors, but at different stages of plant growth and development. Obtaining high yields and appropriate grain quality indicators is possible only with sowing at the optimal date and after properly selected preceding crops for each variety (Ergashev and Khalikov, 2017; Bagulho et al., 2015). Selection of genotypes with a higher level of stability in terms of quality indicators after different preceding crops and at different sowing dates is very important for production conditions (Saleem et al., 2015; Zhemela and Shakalii, 2012).

The aim of the study was to establish the peculiarities of the formation of flour quality indicators in different winter bread wheat genotypes depending on hydrothermal conditions of different growing seasons, sowing date and after different preceding crops in the central part of the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe.

Methods and Materials

The study was conducted at the V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat NAAS of Ukraine in 2016/17-2018/19 growing seasons. Seventeen genotypes of winter bread wheat were used as research material: G1 Podolianka (standard), G2 MIP Valensiia, G3 MIP Vyshyvanka, G4 MIP Kniazhna, G5 Trudivnytsia myronivska, G6 Balada myronivska, G7 Vezha myronivska, G8 Hratsiia myronivska, G9 Estafeta myronivska, G10 MIP Assol, G11 MIP Dniprianka, G12 Avrora myronivska, G13 MIP Vidznaka, G14 MIP Darunok, G15 MIP Lada, G16 MIP Fortuna, G17 MIP Yuvileina. They were sown in three sowing dates (I-September 26, II-October 5, III-October 16), after five preceding crops (green manure (GM), mustard (MS), soybean (SB), sunflower (SF), corn (CR)).

Soil is deep, little humus, slightly leached chornozem. The thickness of the humus horizon is 38-40 cm. The content of humus is 3.7-3.9%, alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen is 55-64 mg, phosphorus is 205-238 mg, exchangeable potassium is 82-110 mg per 1 kg of soil. Soil pH is 5.1-6.6. The specific weight of the solid phase of the soil is in the range of 2.62-2.71 g/cm3. The soil bulk density in the profile does not exceed 1.29 g/cm3, in the arable layer it is 1.27 g/cm3.

Growing techniques is conventional for the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe (Siroshtan and Kavunets, 2016). Sowing was carried out with breeding seed drill SN-10 ts with sowing rate of 5 million viable seeds per 1 ha. Plots were placed according to the complete randomized scheme in four repetitions with net area 10 m2. The crop was harvested by direct combining with “Sampo-130” and converted to standard (14%) grain moisture.

Protein content in the flour was determined using near-infrared reflection spectrometer (spectral range 1400-2400 nm) on the SPECTRAN 119M instrument; sedimentation volume was determined according to the micro method in acetic acid; the amount of wet gluten was determined manually by washing the dough resulted from mixing 25 g of flour with 12 ml of 2% saline solution from starch and covers of grain, and gluten deformation index (GDI) was determined by using the device IDK-1M (State Standard 3768:2019, 2019; Remeslo et al., 1971).

Statistical processing of experimental data was performed by methods of descriptive and variation statistics, as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistica 8.0, Microsoft Excel 2013.

Results and Discussion

The 2016/17-2018/19 growing seasons of the study were contrasting in hydrothermal regime with uneven distribution of precipitation through months (Fig. 1). The annual mean air temperature exceeded the average long-term temperature (ALT) by 0.8-1.7°С. The most variation in monthly mean temperature over the seasons was observed mainly from November to March. In general, 2016/17 and 2018/19 growing seasons were the dry seasons, and the 2017/18 was the wet season. The amount of precipitation in these seasons was 78%, 91% and 120%, respectively, as compared to the ALT. Of particular note is the lack of precipitation in August in all growing seasons (on average 36 mm less than the ALT), in September 2016/17 and 2017/18 (48 and 37 mm less ALT, respectively), in October 2018/19 (18 mm less than ALT), in March 2016/17 (22 mm less than ALT), in April 2017/18 and 2018/19 (20 and 18 mm less ALT, respectively), as well as in May 2016/17 and 2017/18 (respectively 28 and 18 mm less ALT), in June 2016/17 (59 mm less ALT).

ukrainian-journal-ecology-hydrothermal-regime

Fig 1. Average monthly data of the hydrothermal regime during 2016/17-2018/19 growing seasons.

Significant variability of quality characteristics of winter wheat flour depending on hydrothermal conditions of the years of the research was noted (Table 1). Karaduman et al. (2021) and Denčić et al. (2011) obtained similar results. The most variability in protein and wet gluten content was observed in 2018/19, the lowest one was in 2017/18. The sedimentation volume varied significantly in 2016/17, and the gluten deformation index in 2017/18, however, the lowest variation in these indicators was observed in 2018/19.

Quality characteristics 2016/17 2017/18 2018/19 2016/17-2018/19
Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean
Protein content,% 10.1-17.0 13.4 10.4-15.4 12.8 9.5-17.9 13.0 11.1-15.7 13.1
Wet gluten content,% 18.6-42.0 31.1 19.5-35.3 26.4 11.9-39.8 26.4 20.4-38.5 28.2
Sedimentation volume, ml 42-91 73 41-87 66 41-81 58 51-80 66
GDI, GDM units 34-109 74 26-105 53 48-119 77 42-98 68

Table 1. Variation of flour quality characteristics of winter bread wheat genotypes depending on the conditions of growing seasons.

On average, for the whole panel of genotypes after five preceding crops for three sowing dates, the maximum of protein content (13.4%), wet gluten content (31.1%) and sedimentation volume (73 ml) were observed in 2016/17. During the growing seasons, the quality of winter wheat wet gluten corresponded to the first group.

According to the results of analysis of variance (Table 2), reliably significant influence of the genotype on all flour quality indicators was established (15.3-26.6%). The conditions of growing season had the greatest effect on sedimentation volume and gluten deformation index (31.7 and 33.6%, respectively), and the least effect (3.8%) on protein content.

Sources of variation df Protein content Wet gluten content Sedimentation volume GDI
Genotype (А) 16 15.3 19.8 22.2 26.6
Growing season (В) 2 3.8 19.7 31.7 33.6
Preceding crop (C) 4 5.0 2.6 1.6 0.8
Sowing date (D) 2 1.8 1.2 0.5 0.01
A × B 32 11.9 9.7 7.0 12.9
A × C 64 3.6 2.7 2.2 2.7
A × D 32 2.1 1.6 1.6 0.8
B × C 8 14.8 10.6 5.9 2.2
B × D 4 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.3
C × D 8 2.5 1.5 0.5 0.5
A × B × C 128 6.0 5.8 4.9 7.7
A × B × D 64 3.1 2.4 2.6 1.9
B × C × D 16 7.9 5.8 2.0 1.1
A × C × D 128 5.5 5.3 4.3 3.1
A × B × C × D 256 12.2 9.4 9.2 4.9
Error 2295 3.0 1.0 3.3 1.1

Table 2. The part of sum square (%) for flour quality characteristics of winter bread wheat, 2016/17-2018/19.

The maximum effect of preceding crops and sowing dates was found on protein content (5.0; 1.8%, respectively), the minimum effect was on gluten deformation index (0.8; 0.01%, respectively). The significant (7.0-12.9%) influence of genotype × growing season interaction on the flour quality indicators under study was noted. The most influence of growing season × preceding crop interaction on protein and gluten content (14.8; 10.6%, respectively), genotype × growing season × preceding crop × sowing date interaction on protein content (12.2%) was noted. The most part of sum square for effect of year conditions on sedimentation volume was also obtained by Sasani et al. (2020). In the experiments of Denčić et al. (2011) there was obtained a higher percentage of the influence of the interaction of these factors not only on protein content (23.8%), but also on wet gluten content (27.0%). Bagulho et al. (2015) reported an equivalent effect of growing season conditions and genotype on protein and wet gluten content, and the maximum effect of the interaction of these factors and sowing date on protein content (13.2; 9.3%, respectively).

Based on analysis of variance in the context of individual genotypes, different ratios of the influence of growing season conditions, sowing dates and preceding crops for different genotypes were revealed (Tables 3-6).

Variety code Growing season (B) Preceding crop (C) Sowing date (D) B × C B × D C × D B × C × D Error
G1 Podolianka 11.0 7.6 0.7 33.3 1.3 15.5 25.6 4.9
G2 MIP Valensiia 11.9 15.5 15.4 20.3 10.6 4.4 19.1 2.7
G3 MIP Vyshyvanka 11.6 6.0 6.1 30.4 14.8 6.9 17.6 6.5
G4 MIP Kniazhna 24.5 9.9 3.1 11.2 8.0 6.8 32.6 3.9
G5 Trudivnytsia myronivska 2.1 16.1 1.9 27.2 2.2 10.5 33.4 6.7
G6 Balada myronivska 11.3 6.6 3.9 33.0 6.3 11.2 24.4 3.3
G7 Vezha myronivska 41.8 10.4 0.7 19.0 7.0 6.7 11.2 3.1
G8 Hratsiia myronivska 12.3 8.3 2.6 21.1 6.2 12.1 32.8 4.7
G9 Estafeta myronivska 22.7 19.8 3.6 33.2 3.9 6.3 7.8 2.7
G10 MIP Assol 21.9 5.8 1.0 14.8 6.3 12.8 33.4 4.0
G11 MIP Dniprianka 4.2 6.3 3.1 26.2 5.5 16.4 35.0 3.3
G12 Avrora myronivska 19.5 8.3 11.3 19.7 2.1 9.6 26.6 2.9
G13 MIP Vidznaka 19.4 11.8 5.4 30.7 5.6 7.8 17.3 2.1
G14 MIP Darunok 32.1 9.1 1.3 28.7 0.5 7.8 15.7 4.8
G15 MIP Lada 8.2 5.1 0.6 27.3 3.8 9.3 41.0 4.5
G16 MIP Fortuna 23.5 2.4 3.8 26.5 5.7 13.0 22.7 2.4
G17 MIP Yuvileina 22.1 19.3 8.1 15.2 1.4 5.3 25.3 3.3

Table 3. The part of sum square (%) for factors of influence on protein content in winter bread wheat genotypes, 2016/17-2018/19.

Variety code Growing season (B) Preceding crop (C) Sowing date (D) B × C B × D C × D B × C × D Error
G1 Podolianka 16.6 15.0 0.3 39.6 1.6 10.6 14.6 1.7
G2 MIP Valensiia 25.3 10.7 14.5 28.4 5.0 3.0 12.0 1.0
G3 MIP Vyshyvanka 25.0 9.2 1.4 10.1 10.0 15.5 27.0 1.7
G4 MIP Kniazhna 2.3 9.1 4.1 26.1 7.9 17.4 31.5 1.6
G5 Trudivnytsia myronivska 32.7 9.6 2.2 15.7 9.8 5.2 23.6 1.3
G6 Balada myronivska 38.4 8.4 1.5 20.8 1.9 6.5 20.6 1.9
G7 Vezha myronivska 66.7 5.4 0.8 12.1 2.1 3.7 8.4 0.8
G8 Hratsiia myronivska 17.0 1.4 0.5 18.3 4.5 16.9 40.1 1.5
G9 Estafeta myronivska 58.6 7.2 2.9 19.7 0.4 3.1 7.4 0.7
G10 MIP Assol 51.3 2.6 0.2 10.5 2.5 9.8 22.0 1.1
G11 MIP Dniprianka 17.3 5.3 3.7 21.0 13.7 12.5 25.2 1.3
G12 Avrora myronivska 4.6 7.5 9.5 29.2 4.3 13.6 29.9 1.4
G13 MIP Vidznaka 24.8 6.8 6.6 22.3 4.1 13.3 20.6 1.4
G14 MIP Darunok 12.6 14.5 4.0 38.8 0.8 10.7 16.1 2.5
G15 MIP Lada 43.6 3.6 0.1 17.9 4.9 6.9 21.8 1.2
G16 MIP Fortuna 46.7 2.2 1.4 24.9 1.3 7.6 15.1 0.8
G17 MIP Yuvileina 59.8 5.2 4.2 12.7 1.2 2.9 13.1 0.9

Table 4. The part of sum square (%) for factors of influence on wet gluten content in winter bread wheat genotypes, 2016/17-2018/19.

Variety code Growing season (B) Preceding crop (C) Sowing date (D) B × C B × D C × D B × C × D Error
G1 Podolianka 42.7 10.2 0.8 23.4 1.7 9.9 9.1 2.1
G2 MIP Valensiia 71.8 1.5 0.1 11.9 5.6 4.2 3.5 1.5
G3 MIP Vyshyvanka 23.6 17.0 3.4 27.4 3.2 6.6 14.9 4.0
G4 MIP Kniazhna 17.5 8.7 6.1 50.1 1.5 4.6 9.8 1.8
G5 Trudivnytsia myronivska 50.8 2.8 0.8 24.4 7.4 3.8 8.7 1.3
G6 Balada myronivska 6.2 6.7 0.0 45.7 6.1 17.4 15.2 2.7
G7 Vezha myronivska 79.0 5.9 1.0 4.9 0.3 3.1 5.0 0.8
G8 Hratsiia myronivska 57.9 8.7 3.7 7.7 7.4 3.3 8.8 2.7
G9 Estafeta myronivska 85.0 0.6 0.1 4.6 0.8 1.6 6.2 1.0
G10 MIP Assol 76.5 3.1 0.2 4.9 0.8 6.8 6.9 0.8
G11 MIP Dniprianka 62.0 4.1 0.4 5.3 4.2 8.4 14.2 1.4
G12 Avrora myronivska 78.8 4.6 0.5 4.2 4.2 2.4 3.9 1.3
G13 MIP Vidznaka 63.5 14.7 1.8 5.4 3.6 3.1 6.7 1.2
G14 MIP Darunok 73.0 1.5 1.6 11.1 0.6 2.3 8.7 1.1
G15 MIP Lada 42.9 2.3 0.6 27.1 6.1 6.1 13.5 1.4
G16 MIP Fortuna 35.9 4.5 2.5 19.2 6.1 8.6 20.0 3.2
G17 MIP Yuvileina 77.7 1.9 0.5 8.7 1.0 3.3 5.7 1.2

Table 5. The part of sum square (%) for factors of influence on gluten deformation index in winter bread wheat genotypes, 2016/17-2018/19.

Variety code Growing season (B) Preceding crop (C) Sowing date (D) B × C B × D C × D B × C × D Error
G1 Podolianka 57.0 5.1 1.6 12.5 3.6 4.6 11.5 4.2
G2 MIP Valensiia 57.9 1.6 10.6 13.6 2.2 1.5 8.4 4.3
G3 MIP Vyshyvanka 38.5 13.1 0.5 27.0 0.8 7.9 6.4 5.8
G4 MIP Kniazhna 36.6 6.5 3.7 15.1 8.7 9.2 13.8 6.4
G5 Trudivnytsia myronivska 38.1 5.0 1.7 13.4 1.4 7.1 26.7 6.6
G6 Balada myronivska 29.3 4.6 5.3 20.0 13.1 10.5 12.4 4.6
G7 Vezha myronivska 72.9 3.5 0.1 8.7 1.3 4.9 6.0 2.5
G8 Hratsiia myronivska 57.8 2.7 0.1 20.8 1.2 3.1 11.7 2.6
G9 Estafeta myronivska 52.9 6.5 0.9 8.6 1.3 7.2 18.3 4.5
G10 MIP Assol 42.4 3.7 6.1 11.6 10.2 4.5 16.3 5.4
G11 MIP Dniprianka 18.8 9.8 2.5 19.5 5.9 12.5 25.2 5.8
G12 Avrora myronivska 54.1 5.5 0.6 12.2 6.6 4.5 12.3 4.3
G13 MIP Vidznaka 31.2 4.7 4.9 15.8 7.5 9.0 19.8 7.1
G14 MIP Darunok 52.9 12.3 1.4 12.1 1.2 3.8 9.4 6.8
G15 MIP Lada 47.8 2.8 1.1 11.2 4.5 6.5 23.7 2.3
G16 MIP Fortuna 57.2 1.8 1.2 10.7 1.7 12.1 11.8 3.4
G17 MIP Yuvileina 50.9 4.6 8.3 8.9 1.8 2.6 18.8 4.1

Table 6. The part of sum square (%) for factors of influence on sedimentation volume in winter bread wheat genotypes, 2016/17-2018/19.

It was established the least influence of growing season conditions on protein content (Table 3) in the varieties Trudivnytsia myronivska and MIP Dniprianka (2.1; 4.2%, respectively), preceding crops in the variety MIP Fortuna (2.4%), sowing dates in the varieties MIP Lada, Podolianka, Vezha myronivska (0.6; 0.7; 0.7%, respectively). The most influence of growing seasonconditions on protein content was observed in the variety Vezha myronivska (41.8%), preceding crops in the varieties MIP Yuvileina, Estafeta myronivska (19.3; 19.8%, respectively), and sowing dates in the variety MIP Valensiia (15.4%). The largest range of the part of sum square variation in protein content was revealed for preceding crops (of 2.1% in the variety Trudivnytsia myronivska to 41.8% in the variety Vezha myronivska) and for sowing dates (of 0.6% in the variety MIP Lada to 15.4% in the variety MIP Valensiia).

The least influence on wet gluten content (Table 4) was revealed for growing season conditions in the varieties MIP Kniazhna and Avrora myronivska (2.3; 4.6%, respectively), for preceding crops in the varieties Hratsiia myronivska, MIP Fortuna, MIP Assol (1.4; 2, 2; 2.6%, respectively), for sowing dates in the varieties MIP Lada, MIP Assol, Podolianka, Hratsiia myronivska (0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.5%, respectively). The most influence on this indicator was noted for growing season conditions in the variety Vezha myronivska (66.7%), for preceding crops in the varieties MIP Darunok, Podolianka (14.5; 15.0% respectively), for sowing dates in the variety MIP Valensiia (14.5%).

The somewhat less influence on gluten deformation index (Table 5) was revealed for hydrothermal conditions of the growing season in the variety Balada myronivska (6.2%), for preceding crops in the varieties Estafeta myronivska, MIP Valensiia, MIP Darunok, MIP Yuvileina (0.6; 1.5; 1.5; 1.9%, respectively), for sowing dates in the varieties Balada myronivska, MIP Valensiia, Estafeta myronivska, MIP Assol, MIP Dniprianka, Avrora myronivska, MIP Yuvileina, MIP Lada (0.04; 0.1; 0.1; 0.2; 0.4; 0.5; 0.5; 0.6%, respectively). The maximum influence on this indicator was found for growing season in the varieties MIP Assol, MIP Yuvileina, Avrora myronivska, Vezha myronivska and Estafeta myronivska (76.5; 77.7; 78.8; 79.0; 85.0%, respectively), for preceding crops in the varieties MIP Vidznaka, MIP Vyshyvanka (14.7; 17.0% respectively), for sowing dates in the varieties MIP Kniazhna (6.1%). The largest range of the part of sum square variation in gluten deformation index was revealed for growing season conditions (from 6.2% in the variety Balada myronivska to 85.0% in the variety Estafeta myronivska).

The lowest influence on sedimentation volume (Table 6) was determined for year conditions in the variety MIP Dniprianka (18.8%), for preceding crops in the varieties MIP Valensiia, MIP Fortuna (1.6; 1.8%, respectively), for sowing dates in the varieties Vezha myronivska, Hratsiia myronivska, MIP Vyshyvanka, Avrora myronivska, Estafeta myronivska (0.1; 0.1; 0.5; 0.6; 0.9%, respectively). The most influence on this indicator was noted for growing season conditions in the variety Vezha myronivska (72.9%), for preceding crops in the varieties MIP Darunok, MIP Vyshyvanka (12.3; 13.1% respectively), for sowing dates in the varieties MIP Yuvileina and MIP Valensiia (8, 3; 10.6% respectively).

The variety Vezha myronivska was singled out with the most response to variation in growing season conditions by all the indicators of flour quality and the MIP Fortuna variety was with the lowest effect of preceding crops.

The maximum of protein content (13.4%) and wet gluten content (28.9%) on average for all genotypes in 2016-17-2018-19 was obtained after the soybean as preceding crop, the highest sedimentation volume (67 ml) was after green manure, and the lowest these quality indicators (12.5; 26.8% and 63 ml, respectively) was after corn (Table 7). The similar results were observed by other researchers (Ergashev and Khalikov, 2017; Zhemela and Shakalii, 2012).

Preceding crop Sowing date Mean LSD05 Sowing date Mean LSD05
I II III I II III
Protein content, % Wet gluten content, %
GM 13.3 13.3 13.1 13.2 0.4 28.6 28.6 28.4 28.5 0.7
MS 13.0 12.7 13.2 12.9 0.4 28.6 28.0 28.6 28.4 0.7
SF 12.9 13.0 13.7 13.2 0.3 27.6 28.1 30.1 28.6 0.8
CR 11.9 12.7 13.0 12.5 0.3 25.1 27.1 28.1 26.8 0.7
SB 13.3 13.3 13.6 13.4 0.4 28.4 28.9 29.3 28.9 0.7
Mean 12.9 13.0 13.3   0.4 27.7 28.2 28.9   0.7
LSD05 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4   0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7  
  Sedimentation volume, ml GDI, GDM units
GM 67 66 67 67 3 69 71 71 71 4
MS 66 66 67 66 4 71 69 66 69 3
SF 65 65 68 66 4 68 64 68 67 3
CR 60 64 64 63 3 65 65 67 66 3
SB 66 66 67 66 3 67 69 68 68 4
Mean 65 66 67   3 68 68 68   3
LSD05 3 4 3 3   3 4 3 3  

Table 7. Characters of flour quality for winter bread wheat depending on sowing dates and preceding crops, 2016/17-2018/19.

In studies by Saleem et al. (2015) and Çiekiç et al. (2008) higher levels of flour quality indicators were obtained for later sowing dates. In our studies, we found a general trend of increasing sedimentation volume, protein and wet gluten content with shift sowing date from September 26 to October 16 (Table 7). There was a significant decrease in the gluten deformation index by 5 GDM units with shift sowing date from September 26 to October 16 after the preceding crop mustard. The preceding crop green manure increased the GDI.

On average, for all variants of the experiment during three growing seasons there were identified the varieties MIP Valensiia, MIP Kniazhna, Hratsiia myronivska, Estafeta myronivska, MIP Dniprianka, Avrora myronivska, MIP Darunok, MIP Lada MIP Fortuna, MIP Yuvileina that significantly exceeded the standard Podolianka in protein content; MIP Valensiia, MIP Kniazhna, Hratsiia myronivska, Estafeta myronivska, Avrora myronivska in wet gluten content; MIP Kniazhna in sedimentation volume (Fig. 2).

ukrainian-journal-ecology-sowing-dates

Fig 2. Characteristics of flour quality in winter bread wheat genotypes on average for sowing dates and preceding crops, 2016/17-2018/19.

Note: GDI is for gluten deformation index, GDM is for gluten deformation meter, G1 Podolianka, G2 MIP Valensiia, G3 MIP Vyshyvanka, G4 MIP Kniazhna, G5 Trudivnytsia myronivska, G6 Balada myronivska, G7 Vezha myronivska, G8 Hratsiia myronivska, G9 Estafeta myronivska, G10 MIP Assol, G11 MIP Dniprianka, G12 Avrora myronivska, G13 MIP Vidznaka, G14 MIP Darunok, G15 MIP Lada, G16 MIP Fortuna, G17 MIP Yuvileina.

According to the gluten deformation index, most varieties had the gluten of the I group quality, only Hratsiia myronivska, MIP Dniprianka and Avrora myronivska formed gluten with the II group quality.

There was identified the variety MIP Kniazhna with a complex of high flour quality indicators, which significantly exceeded the Podolianka standard in all quality indicators on average of growing seasons, sowing dates and preceding crops.

Conclusion

As a result of the conducted researches the highest influence of the growing season conditions on the formation of sedimentation volume (31.7%) and gluten deformation index (33.6%) was established. Preceding crops and sowing dates more effected on protein content (5.0; 1.8%, respectively) than on other indicators. Reliably significant influence of genotype on all flour quality characters was revealed (15.3-26.6%). However, for certain genotypes a different ratio of the influence of growing season conditions, sowing dates and preceding crops on the formation of flour quality indicators has been established. The maximum content of protein (13.4%) and wet gluten (28.9%) on average for all growing seasons were after the soybean as preceding crop, the highest sedimentation volume (67 ml) was after green manure, and the lowest these quality indicators (12.5%, 26.8% and 63 ml, respectively) were after corn. There was a general tendency to increase the sedimentation volume, protein and wet gluten content with shift in sowing date from September 26 to October 16. The variety MIP Kniazhna with a complex of reliably high flour quality indicators has been identified.

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Author Info

O. Demydov, I. Pravdziva*, V. Hudzenko, A. Rysin, H. Volohdina, A. Siroshtan, T. Yurchenko, O. Zaima and I. Misiura
 
The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine Tsentralne village, Obukhiv district, Kyiv region, 08, Ukraine
 

Citation: Demydov, O., Pravdziva, I., Hudzenko, V., Rysin, A., Volohdina, H., Siroshtan, A., Yurchenko, T., Zaima, O., Misiura, I. (2021). Formation of flour quality indicators in different winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes depending on abiotic and anthropogenic factors. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 11 (8), 111-118.

Received Date: Sep 18, 2021 / Accepted Date: Oct 16, 2021 / Published Date: Oct 25, 2021

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.