A Review of germanium environmental distribution, migration and accumulation


O.I. Sobolev, B.V. Gutyj*, S.V. Sobolievа, O.O. Borshch, I. M. Kushnir, R.A. Petryshak, O.S. Naumyuk, V.I. Kushnir, O.Y. Petryshak, M.M. Zhelavskyi, V.B. Todoriuk, H.V. Sus, N.D. Levkivska, A.O. Vysotskij and N.V. Magrelo

In this paper we summarized the published data on distribution, migration and accumulation of chemical forms of germanium in natural environment. Despite the germanium is found in lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere it is one of the least studied elements. It belongs to rare scattered elements with a relatively high migration capacity in the earth's crust and on its surface. Depending on the physical and chemical conditions, germanium possesses different properties, which determines the variety of ways of its migration. The nature and form of migration of germanium is not determined only by its chemical properties but also by interaction with various underground water addendums, the granulometric and chemical-mineralogical composition of soil-forming rocks and soils, biogenic and technogenic processes. The content of germanium in natural waters, soils and plants can vary widely and depends on many factors. In particular, its concentration in groundwater and surface water depends on the natural geological environment, pressure, temperature, meteorological and anthropogenic factors; soil by their type, region, features of soil-forming processes, chemical composition of the parent rocks, climatic conditions and amounts of organic substances; in plants by their species and varietal facilities, the growth stage of the plants, the availability of soils by this element, the forms of germanium compounds in the soil (inorganic or organic), the ability of soil to retain labile form of germanium and climatic conditions. We also underlined the insufficient level of germanium in human body due to low concentrations in the food and water. However, we suggested that any products with a high content of germanium may pose a risk to human health through its toxic effects.

Key words: Germanium; Migration; Natural environment; Concentration; Water; Soil; Plants; Food; Human consumption levels


Arnórsson, S. (1984). Germanium in Icelandic geothermal systems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48(12), 2489–2502. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(84)90300-4

Asaka, T., Nitta, E., Makifuchi, T., Shibazaki, Y., Kitamura, Y.,Ohara, H., Matsushita, K., Takamori, M., Takahashi, Y., & Genda, A. (1995). Germanium intoxication withsensory ataxia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 130(2), 220–223. doi: 10.1016 / 0022-510X (95) 00032-W

Bernstein, L. (1985). Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49(11), 2409–2422. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037 (85)90241-8

Blecker, S.W., King, S.L., Derry, L.A., Chadwick, O.A., Ippolito, J.A., & Kelly, E.F. (2007). The ratio of germanium to silicon in plant phytoliths: quantification of biological discrimination under controlled experimental conditions. Biogeochemistry, 86(2), 189–199. doi:10.1007 / s10533-007-9154-7

Braman, R.S. & Tompkins, M.A. (1978). Atomic emission spectrometric determination of antimony, germanium, and methylgermanium compounds in the environment. Analytical Chemistry, 50(8), 1088–1093. doi: 10.1021/ac50030a021

Burdette, S., & Thornton, B. (2018). The germination of germanium. Nature Chemistry, 10, 244. doi: 10.1038/nchem.2935

Chen, T.-J, & Lin, C.-H. (2011). Germanium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects, 927–933. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52272-6.00477-3

Chenghom, O., Suksringarm, J., & Morakot, N. (2010). Mineral composition and germanium contents in some Phellinus Mushrooms in the Northeast of Thailand. Current Research in Chemistry, 2, 24–34. doi: 10.3923/crc.2010.24.34

Choi, I., Seo, D., Han, M., Delaune, R., Ok, Y.S., Jeon, W.-T., Lim, B., Cheong, Y.-H., Kang, H.-W., & Cho, J.-S. (2013). Accumulation and toxicity of germanium in cucumber under different types of germaniums. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 44(20), 3006–3019. doi: 10.1080/00103624.2013.829083

COT. (2008).Committee on Toxicity statement on the 2006 UK total diet study of metals and other elements.

Criaud, A., & Fouillac, C. (1986). Etude des eaux thermominérales carbogazeuses du Massif Central Français. II. Comportement de quelques métaux en trace, de l'arsenic, de l'antimoine et du germanium. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50(8), 1573–1582. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(86)90120-1

Darmohray, L.M., Luchyn, I.S., Gutyj, B.V., Golovach, P.I., Zhelavskyi, M.M., Paskevych, G.A., & Vishchur, V.Y. (2019). Trace elements transformation in young rabbit muscles. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(4), 616-621

Delvigne, C., Opfergelt, S., Cardinal, D., Delvaux, B., & André, L. (2009). Distinct silicon and germanium pathways in the soil-plant system: Evidence from banana and horsetail. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 (G2), 1–11. doi: 10.1029/2008JG000899

Derry, L. A. (2018). Germanium. In: White, W.M. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Cham. doi: 0.1007/978-3-319-39312-4_235

Dobrzański, Z., Kołacz, R., Górecka, H., Chojnacka, K., & Bartkowiak, A. (2005). The content of microelements and trace elements in raw milk from cows in the Silesian Region. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14(5), 685–689.

Dobrzyński, D., Boguszewska-Czubara, A., & Sugimori, K. (2018). Hydrogeochemical and biomedical insights into germanium potential of curative waters: a case study of health resorts in the Sudetes Mountains (Poland). Environ Geochem Health, 40(4), 1355–1375. doi: 10.1007/s10653-017-0061-0

Dobrzyński, D., Słaby, E., & Mętlak, A. (2011). Germanium geochemistry in mineral groundwater from mountain areas of Southern Poland – A case study of its affinity to other elements. In: Geological and medical sciences for a safer environment, Book of Abstracts. GeoMed, 185–185. Bari, Italy.

Elmi, S. A. (2009). Gallium and germanium distribution in geothermal water. Geothermal Training Programme, Reports, 5, 1–13.

Enghag, P., & Enghag, P. (2006). Encyclopedia of the elements: technical data, history, processing, applications. Estados Unidos: Wiley-VCH.

Eriksson, J. (2001). Concentrations of 61 trace elements in sewage sludge, farmyard manure, mineral fertiliser, precipitation and in oil and crops. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Costumer Service, Stockholm.

Fay, D., Kramers, G., Zhang, C., McGrath, D., & Greenan, E. (2007). Soil Geochemical Atlas of Ireland. Ed. G. Kramers. Teagasc and the Environmental Protection Agency, Wexford.

Figurovskij, N.A. (1970). Otkrytie jelementov i proishozhdenie ih nazvanij. Nauka, Moskva (in Russian).

French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety. (2011). Second French Total Diet Study (TDS 2) Report 1. Inorganic contaminants, minerals, persistent organic pollutants, mycotoxins and phytoestrogens. ANSES, 1–77.

Frenzel, M., Ketris, M.P., & Gutzmer, J. (2014). On the geological availability of germanium. Miner Deposita, 49, 471–486. doi: 10.1007/s00126-013-0506-z

Goodman, S. (1988). Therapeutic effects of organic germanium. Medical hypotheses, 26(3), 207–215. doi: 10.1016/0306-9877(88)90101-6

Gross, J.L., & Thoennessen, M. (2012). Discovery of gallium, germanium, lutetium, and hafnium isotopes. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, 98(5), 983–1002. doi: 10.1016/j.adt.2011.09.004

Gutyj, B., Grymak, Y., Drach, M., Bilyk, O., Matsjuk, O., Magrelo, N., Zmiya, M., & Katsaraba, O. (2017). The impact of endogenous intoxication on biochemical indicators of blood of pregnant cows. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 438–443. doi: 10.15421/021768

Gutyj, B., Khariv, I., Binkevych, V., Binkevych, O., Levkivska, N., Levkivskyj, D., & Vavrysevich, Y. (2017). Research on acute and chronic toxity of the experimental drug Аmprolinsyl. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(1), 41–45. doi: 10.15421/021708.

Gutyj, B., Martyshchuk, T., Bushueva, I., Semeniv, B., Parchenko, V., Kaplaushenko, A., Magrelo, N., Hirkovyy, A., Musiy, L., & Murska, S. (2017). Morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of rats poisoned by carbon tetrachloride and subject to action of liposomal preparation. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(2), 304–309. doi: 10.15421/021748.

Guеrin, T., Chekri, R., Vastel, C., Sirot, V., Volatier, J.-L., Leblanc, J.-C., & Noël, L. (2011). Determination of 20 trace elements in fish and other seafood from the French market. Food Chemistry, 127(3), 934–942. doi: 10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2011.01.061

Halperin, S.J., Barzilay, A., Carson, M., Roberts, C., Lynch, J., & Komarneni, S. (1995). Germanium accumulation and toxicity in barley. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 18(7), 1417–1426. doi: 10.1080/01904169509364991

Hambrick, G.A., Froelich, P.N., Andreae, M.O., & Lewis, B.L. (1984). Determination of methylgermanium species in natural waters by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. Analytical Chemistry, 6(3), 421–424. doi: 10.1021/ac00267a027

Hara, S., Hayashi, N., Hirano, S., Zhong, X.N., Yasuda, S., & Komae, H. (1990). Determination of germanium in some plants and animals. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, A journal of biosciences, 45(11–12), 1250–1252. doi: 10.1515/znc-1990-11-1227

Höll, R., Kling, M., & Schroll, E. (2007). Metallogenesis of germanium – а review. Ore Geology Reviews, 30, 145–180. doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2005.07.034.

Hu, Z. & Gao, S. (2008). Upper crustal abundances of trace elements: а revision and update. Chemical Geology, 253(3), 205–221. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.05.010

Hui, R.Н., Hou, D.Y., & Guan, C.X. (2004). Determination of germanium in A. arborescens by spectrophotometric method. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, 24(9), 1106–1109.

Ivankiv, M., Kachmar, N., Mazurak, O., & Martyshuk, T. (2019). Hepatic protein synthesis and morphological parameters in blood of rats under oxidative stress and action of feed additive “Butaselmevit-plus”. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(4), 628-633.

Ivanov, V.V. (1996). Redkie p-jelementy. V: Burenkov, E.K. (red.). Jekologicheskaja geohimija jelementov – nabor iz 6 tomov. Nedra, Moskva (in Russian).

Ivanyca, L.O., Klimkina, A.Ju., Chmylenko, T.S., & Chmylenko F.O. (2016). Vyznachennja olova ta germaniju z nonilfluoronom i polimernymy flokuljantamy v roslynnyh materialah. Visnyk Dnipropetrovs'kogo universytetu. Serija Himija, 24(1), 27–35 (in Ukrainian). doi: 10.15421/081605

Jinhui, S., & Kui, J. (1995). Adsorptive complex catalytic polarographic determination of germanium in soils and vegetables. Analytica Chimica Acta, 309(1–3), 103–109. doi: 10.1016/0003-2670(95)00027-W

Kabata-Pendias, A. & Pendias, H. (2001). Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Kabata-Pendias, A., & Mukherjee, A.B. (2007). Trace Elements from Soil to Human. Springer, Berlin. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-32714-1

Kabata-Pendias, A., & Szteke, B. (2015). Trace Elements in Abiotic and Biotic Environments. Boca Raton: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/b18198

Kang, J.Y., Park, C.S., Ko, S.R., In, K., Park, C.S., Lee, D.Y., & Yang, D.C. (2011). Characteristics of Absorption and Accumulation of Inorganic Germanium in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Journal of Ginseng Research, 35(1), 12–20. doi: 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.1.012

Keith, L.S., Faroon, O.M., Maples-Reynolds, N., & Fowler, B.A. (2015).Germanium. In: Nordberg, G.F., Fowler, B.A., & Nordberg, M. (ed.). Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Fourth Edition). Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59453-2.00037-8

Keith, L.S., Faroon, O.M., Maples-Reynolds, N., & Fowler, B.A. (2015). Germanium-Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. Chapter 37. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 4th Edition, 799–816. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59453-2.00037-8

Kim, Y., Chun, J., Jeon, Y., Woo, H., & Kim, S. (2019). Effect of Organic or Inorganic Selenium and Germanium on Growth Stage of Rice. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, 38(2), 96–103. doi: 10.5338/kjea.2019.38.2.14

Kobayashi, A., & Ogra, Y. (2009). Metabolism of Tellurium, Antimony and Germanium simultaneously administered to rats. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 34, 295–303. doi:10.2131/jts.34.295

Koga, A. (1967). Germanium, molybdenum, copper and zinc in New Zealand thermal waters. New Zealand Journal of Science, 10, 428–446.

Komarov, B.A., Pogorel'skaja, L.V., Frolova, M.A., Albulov, A.I., Treskunov, K.A., Shirokova, O.K., & Komarov Ju.A. (2014). Pochemu neobhodim povsemestnyj kontrol' mikrojelementnogo sostava rastitel'nogo syr'ja. Potencial sovremennoj nauki, 5, 27–35 (in Russian).

Konovalova, O.Ju., Mitchenko, F.A., Shurajeva, T.K., & Dzhan T.V. (2012). Mineral'ni elementy likars'kyh roslyn ta i'h rol' u zhyttjedijal'nosti ljudyny. Vydavnycho-poligrafichnyj centr “Kyi'vs'kyj universytet”, Kyi'v (in Ukrainian).

Korzh, V.D. (1991). Geohimija jelementnogo sostava gidrosfery. Nauka, Moskva (in Russian).

Ladenberger, A., Andersson, M., Reimann, C., Tarvainen, T., Snöälv, J., Morris, G., Eklund, M., & Sadeghi, M. (2012). Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils and grazing land (GEMAS) in Norway, Finland and Sweden - regional report. SGU-Rapport 2012, 17.

Laznicka, P. (1999). Quantitative relationships among giant deposits of metals. Economic Geology, 94, 455–473. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.94.4.455

Lee, S.T., Lee, Y.H., Choi, Y.J., Lee, S.D., Lee, C.H., & Heo, J.S. (2005). Growth characteristics and germanium absorption of rice plant with different germanium concentrations in soil. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, 24(1), 40–44. doi: 10.5338/kjea.2005.24.1.040

Lee, S.T., Lee, Y.H., Lee, H.J., Cho, J.S., & Heo, J.S. (2005). Germanium Contents of Soil and Crops in Gyeongnam Province. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, 24(1), 34–39. doi: 10.5338/KJEA.2005.24.1.034

Lewis, B., Andreae, M., Froelich, P., & Mortlock, R. (1988). A review of the biogeochemistry of germanium in natural waters. Science of The Total Environment, 73(1–2), 107–120. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(88)90191-X

McMahon, M., Regan, F., & Hughes, H. (2006). The determination of total germanium in real food samples including Chinese herbal remedies using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 97(3), 411–417. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.018

Meija, J., Coplen, T., Berglund, M., Brand, W.A., De Bièvre, P., Gröning, M., Holden, N.E., Irrgeher, J., Loss, R.D., Walczyk, T., & Prohaska, T. (2016). Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 88(3), 293–306. doi: 10.1515/pac-2015-0503

Melcher, F., & Buchhloz, P. (2014). Germanium. In: Gunn, G.A. (ed.) Critical metals handbook. John Wiley & Sons, 177–203. doi: 10.1002/9781118755341.ch8

Meng, Y.M., & Hu, R.Z. (2018). Minireview: advances in germanium isotope analysis by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Analytical Letters, 51(5), 627–647. doi: 10.1080/00032719.2017.1350965

Midula, P.,Wiche, O., Wiese, P., & Andráš, P. (2017). Concentration and bioavailability of toxic trace elements, germanium, and rare earth elements in contaminated areas of the Davidschacht dump-field in Freiberg (Saxony). Freiberg Ecology online, 1(2), 101–112.

Mortlock, R.A., Froelich, P.N., Feely, R.A., Massoth, G.J., Butterfield, D.A., & Lupton, J.E. (1993). Silica and germanium in Pacific Ocean hydrothermal vents and plumes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 119(3), 365–378. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(93)90144-X

Nagata, N., Yoneyama, T., Yanagida, K., Ushio, K., Yanagihara, S., Matsubara, O., & Eishi, Y. (1985). Accumulation of germanium in the tissues of a long-term user of germanium preparation died of acute renal failure. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 10(4), 333–341. doi: 10.2131 / jts.10.333

Negrel, P., Ladenberger, A., Reimann, C., Birke, M., Sadeghi, M., Flight, D.M.A., & Scheib, A.J. (2016). GEMAS: source, distribution patterns and geochemical behaviour of Ge in agricultural and grazing land soils at European continental scale. Applied Geochemistry, 72. 113–124. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2016.07.004

Ouyang, T.P., Zhu, Z.Y., Kuang, Y.Q., Huang, N.S., Tan, J.J., Guo, G.Z., Gu, L.S., & Sun, B. (2006). Dissolved Trace Elements in River Water: Spatial Distribution and the Influencing Factor, a Study for the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China. Environmental Geology, 49, 733–742. doi: 10.1007/s00254-005-0118-8

Peng, X., Lingxia, Z., Schrauzer, G.N., & Xiong, G. (2000). Selenium, boron, and germanium deficiency in the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease. Biological Trace Element Research, 77(3), 193–197. doi: 10.1385/BTER:77:3:193

Poljakov, A.V., Alekseeva, T.V., & Loginov, S.V. (2018). Chesnok (Allium sativum L.) kak istochnik jessencial'nyh jelementov. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta. Serija: Estestvennye nauki, 4, 107–114 (in Russian). doi: 10.18384/2310-7189-2018-4-107-114

Ponomarenko, O.M., Samchuk, A.I., Vovk, K.V., Shvajka, I.D., & Grodzyns'ka G.A. (2019). Vyznachennja germaniju v ob'jektah dovkillja za dopomogoju metoda mas-spektrometrii' z indukcijno zv'jazanoju plazmoju. Ukrai'ns'kyj himichnyj zhurnal, 85(4), 110–113 (in Ukrainian). doi: 10.33609/0041-6045.85.4.2019.110-113

Prychid, C.J., Rudall, P.J., & Gregory, M. (2003). Systematics and biology of silica bodies in monocotyledons. The Botanical Review, 69(4), 377–440. doi: 10.1663/0006-8101(2004)069[0377:SABOSB]2.0.CO;2

Rawlins, B.G., McGrath, S.P., Scheib, A.J., Breward, N., Cave, M., Lister, T.R., Ingham, M., Gowing, C., & Carter, S. (2012). The advanced soil geochemical atlas of England and Wales. British Geological Survey, Keyworth.

Rochow, E.G., & Abel, E.W. (1973). The chemistry of germanium: tin and lead. Pergamon Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-018854-6.50009

Rose, M., Baxter, M., Brereton, N., & Baskaran, C. (2010). Christina Baskaran. Dietary exposure to metals and other elements in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study and some trends over the last 30 years. Food Additives and Contaminants, 27(10), 1380–1404. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2010.496794

Rosenberg, E. (2009). Germanium: Environmental occurrence, importance and speciation. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 8, 29–57. doi: 10.1007/s11157-008-9143-x.

Rouxel, O.J. & Luais, B. (2017). Germanium isotope geochemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 82(1), 601–656. doi: 10.2138/rmg.2017.82.14

Ruiz, A.G., Sola, P.C., & Palmerola, N.M. (2018). Germanium: current and novel recovery processes. In: Lee, S. (ed.). Advanced material and device applications with germanium. In Tech Open, London. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.77997

Sahanda, I.V. (2014). Preparaty germaniju ta i'h zastosuvannja v medycyni. Ukrai'ns'kyj naukovo-medychnyj molodizhnyj zhurnal, 4, 83–86 (in Ukrainian).

Scribner, A., Kurtz, A., & Chadwick, O. (2006). Germanium sequestration by soil: Targeting the roles of secondary clays and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 243, 760–770. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.01.051

Seredin, V., & Finkelman, R. (2008). Metalliferous coals: A review of the main genetic and geochemical types. International Journal of Coal Geology, 76(4), 253–289. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2008.07.016

Shevchenko, O.A., & Proskurnja, Ju.A. (2001). Germanij v ugljah i shahtnyh vodah Donbassa. Ugol' Ukrainy, 11–12 (in Russian).

Siwulski, M., Budzyńska, S., Rzymski, P., Gąsecka, M., Niedzielski, P., Kalač, P., & Mleczek, M. (2019). The effects of germanium and selenium on growth, metalloid accumulation and ergosterol content in mushrooms: experimental study in Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum. European Food Research and Technology, 245, 1799–1810. doi: 10.1007/s00217-019-03299-9

Sobolev O.I. et al. (2019). Chemical composition, energy and biological value of broiler chicken meat caused by various doses of selenium. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(4), 622-627

Sobolev, А., Gutyj, B., Grynevych, N., Bilkevych, V., & Mashkin, Y. (2017). Enrichment of meat products with selenium by its introduction to mixed feed compounds for birds. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 417–422. doi: 10.15421/021764.

Song, C.L., Ji, C., & Jing, X.D. (2005). Advance in physical and chemical properties of germanium and nutrition functions in animals. Chinese Journal of Animal Science, 41, 64–66.

Stadnyk, A.M., Byc', G.O., & Stadnyk, O.A. (2006). Biologichna rol' germaniju v organizmi tvaryn ta ljudyny. Naukovyj visnyk L'vivs'koi' nacional'noi' akademii' veterynarnoi' medycyny im. S.Z. Gzhyc'kogo, 8(2), 185–174 (in Ukrainian).

Stewart, J., Macintosh, D., Allen, J., & McCarthy, J. (2012). Germanium, Tin, and Copper. In: Patty's Toxicology, 355–380. doi: 10.1002/0471435139.tox033.pub2

Sujarko, V.G. (2001). Geohimija ridkisnyh elementiv u pidzemnyh vodah gidrotermal'nyh system Donbasu. Myneralogycheskyj zhurnal, 23(1), 80–87 (in Ukrainian).

Sutton, J., Ellwood, M., Maher, W., & Croot, P. (2013). Oceanic distribution of inorganic germanium relative to silicon: Germanium discrimination by diatoms. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. doi: 10.1029/2009GB003689

Swennen, B., Mallants, A., Roels, H.A., Buchet, J.P., Bernard, A., Lauwerys, R.R., & Lison, D. (2000). Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds. Occupational and environmental medicine, 57(4), 242–248. doi: 10.1136/oem.57.4.242

Tziritis, E., & Kelepertzis, A. (2011). Trace and ultra-trace element hydrochemistry of Lesvos thermal springs. In: Lambrakis, N., Stournaras, G., & Katsanou K. (eds) Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment. Environmental Earth Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8_22

Uzumasa, Y., Nasu, Y., & Toshiko, S. (1959). Chemical investigations of hot springs in Japan: XLIX. Germanium contents of hot springs. Nippon Kagaku Zassi (Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan), 80, 1118–1128 (in Japanese).

Van der Spoel, J.I., Stricker, B.H., Esseveld, M.R., & Schipper, M.E. (1990). Dangers of dietary germanium supplements. Lancet, 336(8707), 117. doi: 10,1016/0140-6736(90)91632-K

Vasil'ev, A.N., & Amelin, V.G. (2016). Issledovanie indikatornyh svojstv himicheskih jelementov, otvechajushhih osobennostjam geohimii sred formirovanija prirodnyh mineral'nyh vod. Georesursy, 18(2), 133–137 (in Russian). doi: 10.18599/grs.18.2.11

Vouk, V.B., & Piver, W.T. (1983). Metallic elements in fossil fuel combustion products: amounts and form of emissions and evaluation of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Environmental health perspectives, 47, 201–225. doi:10.1289/ehp.8347201

Wiche, O., & Heilmeier, H. (2016). Germanium (Ge) and rare earth element (REE) accumulation in selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils. Minerals Engineering, 92, 208–215. doi: 10.1016/j.mineng.2016.03.023

Wiche, O., Székely, B., Moschner, C., & Hermann H. (2018). Germanium in the soil-plant system – a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(32), 31938–31956. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3172-y

Wiche, O., Zertani, V., Hentschel, W., Achtziger, R., & Midula, P. (2017). Germanium and rare earth elements in topsoil and soil-grown plants on different land use types in the mining area of Freiberg (Germany). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 175, 120–129. doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.01.008

Wood, S., & Samson, I. (2006). The aqueous geochemistry of gallium, germanium, indium and scandium. Ore Geology Reviews, 28(1), 57–102. doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2003.06.002

Yang, T., Zhu, Z., Gao, Q., Rao, Z., Han, J., & Wu, Y. (2010). Trace element geochemistry in topsoil from East China. Environmental earth sciences, 60(3), 623–631. doi: 10.1007/s12665-009-0202-6

Yeghicheyan, D., Bossy, C., Bouhnik Le Coz, M., Douchet, C., Granier, G., Heimburger, A., Lacan, F., Lanzanova, A., Rousseau, T. C. C., Seidel, J.-L., Tharaud, M., Candaudap, F., Chmeleff, J., Cloquet, C., Delpoux, S., Labatut, M., Losno, R., Pradoux, C., Sivryn Y., & Sonke, J. (2013). A Compilation of silicon, rare earth element and twenty-one other trace element concentrations in the natural river water reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC). Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 37(4). doi: 10.1111/j.1751-908X.2013.00232.x

Yeghicheyan, D., Carignan, J., Valladon, M., Bouhnik Coz, M., Le Cornec, F., Castrec-Rouelle, M., Robert, M., Aquilina L., Aubry, E., Churlaud, C., Dia, A., & Deberdt, S. (2001). A compilation of silicon and thirty one trace elements measured in the natural river water reference material SLRS-4 (NRC– CNRC). Geostandards Newsletter-the Journal of Geostandards and Geoanalysis, 25(2–3), 465–474. doi:10.1111/j.1751-908X.2001.tb00617.x

Zhang, M., & Zhang, M. (2006). Assessing the impact of leather industry to water quality in the Aojing watershed in Zhejiang province, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 115(1–3), 321–333. doi: 10.1007/s10661-006-6557-1

Zhaoxin, T. (1995). Effects of different dosage of Ge-132 on germanium enrichment and chotesterol contents in eggs. Heilongjiang Journal of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, 12.

Zhong, S., Su, J., Chen, L., Tong, J., Jia, W., Li, X. & Zou, H. (2013). Determination of total germanium in chinese herbal remedies by square-wave catalytic adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry at an improved bismuth film electrode. International Journal of Electrochemistry, 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/735019

Share this article