Cytotoxic effect and chromosomal damages induced by the methanolic extract of Cytisus triflorus assessed by Allium test
Cytisus triflorus is a medicinal plant that has been used for centuries in Algeria. The species' aerial part is commonly used to treat some abdominal diseases and wound healing. We assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic and genotoxic/antigenotoxic activities of Cytisus triflorus (C.t) crude extract and their ability to protect meristematic cells from H2O2-induced nuclear damage. Three concentrations of the extract (0.25 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml) were tested in the absence and the presence of H2O2 (2.5% and 5%). The test was applied to Allium sativum roots for 24 h. The extract was cytotoxic, especially at a 1 mg/ml concentration. A slowdown in root growth reflects this. The mitotic index was reduced up to 33% and 7% for the concentrations 0.5 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml (p<0.001), respectively, compared to the negative control (50%). However, an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was noted with the three concentrations of the extract (p<0.05 at 0.5 mg/ml). Furthermore, treating cells with the Extract-H2O2 mixture (at all concentrations) resulted in a decrease in the mitotic index as well as an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (p<0.05, stickiness, chromosomal bridge, and vagrant chromosome were the most detected aberrations in all the groups). These findings suggest that the extract has cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on Allium sativum cells, particularly at high concentrations.