Developing environmentally friendly technology for wheat grain processing
The environmentally friendly technology for wheat grain processing and the equipment for its implementation have been considered. It has been established that in the production of cereals from wheat grain, the technology of dry cleaning of the grain surface is now widely used. The technique involves removing the upper layers of grain on hulling machines, making it possible to reduce microbiological contamination and pollution of grinding products with various contaminants. The proposed innovative technology consists of cleaning the grain, both outside the whole grain, and cleaning the surfaces hidden inside the grain after splitting it along the groove into two parts. This is achieved due to the possibility of access of the peeling machines' working bodies to the parts of the grain surface that are inaccessible before splitting. For the implementation of innovative technology, the equipment has been developed and manufactured, the energy intensity of which is lower than that for the production of cereals using traditional technology. According to the proposed innovative technology, a new grain product is formed – grain lobules obtained after splitting the grain along the groove, from which, after grinding, either a new type of elongated cereal corresponding to Poltavskaya No 2 is obtained, or wholemeal flour with low ash content, after additional peeling of the resulting cereal and grinding it in a vertical rotor hammer mill. Comparative outputs of cereal have been determined using well-known and innovative technology. It has been established that the output of wheat groats Poltavskaya according to the known technology is 51 %, Artek – 12 %, and husking bran – 30 %. According to innovative technology, the output of wheat groats Poltavskaya No 2 is 53 %, Poltavskaya No 4 – 28 %, and Artek – 3.2 %. When processing elongated grains into wholemeal flour, 48 % of wholemeal flour of increased biological value was obtained, without contaminants, which are contained in the groove of wheat and, during its classical processing, get into all types of flour. When grinding groats Poltavskaya No4 and Artek, the total output of wholemeal flour will increase to 79.2 % with an ash content of 0.72, which corresponds to the 1st-grade flour.