Ecological and geographical characteristics of aujeszky’s disease among the wild pigs in Ukraine

Abstract

V.V. Ukhovskyi, Z.M. Drozhzhe, M.V. Bezymennyi, N.A. Mezhenska, O.M. Romanov, M.S. Karpulenko, O.M. Zhovnir, A.O. Mezhenskyi

The article presents the results of monitoring studies on the detection of specific humoral antibodies against Aujeszky's disease virus in the blood serum of wild boar, shot in the territory of various hunting grounds of all regions of Ukraine for the six-year period 2014-2019. Visual mapping and statistical analysis were performed using GIS technology (ESRI ArcGIS 10.1 software). The detection of specific antibodies against Aujeszky's disease virus was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using two commercial test systems. From 2014 to 2019 inclusive, 3608 serum samples of wild pigs were examined and 811 positive responses were obtained for Aujeszky's disease of wild pigs, representing 22.5% of the studied livestock of this species. Monitoring studies covered all regions of Ukraine. For the period 2014–2019, the largest number of serum samples from wild pigs was tested in seven regions: Zhytomyr (384 samples), Vinnytsia (310 samples), Cherkasy (299 samples), Chernivtsi (294 samples), Poltava (287 samples), Lviv (262 samples) and Sumy (249 samples). The least amount of research has been conducted in the following regions: Kyiv (69 samples), Kirovohrad (63 samples), Dnipro (57 samples), Luhansk (55 samples), Donetsk (53 samples), Zakarpattia (40 samples), Zaporizhia (36 samples) and Kherson (23 samples). For the analyzed period 2014-2019, the highest number of serum samples was examined in 2014 – 1935 and the smallest in 2016 – 2 samples. The seropositivity of wild pigs to Aujeszky's disease during the analyzed period was highest in 2015 – 46.2% and lowest in 2017 – 12.5%. In general, during the analyzed period, from 2014 to 2019, there is a slight tendency to decrease of number of seropositivity cases of wild pigs to Aujeszky's disease. According to the results of the studies, it was found that the seroprevalence rate of wild pigs against Aujeszky's disease virus in different regions of Ukraine during the analyzed period ranged from 45.0% in Zakarpattia region to 8.3% in Zaporizhia region. According to the results of the study of ecological and geographical spread of Aujeszky's disease among the wild boar population in the territory of Ukraine, it was established that the epizootic situation of this disease in different regions of Ukraine is not uniform and has its own characteristics, so the highest rates of seroprevalence of wild boar to Aujeszky's disease were revealed in areas: Zakarpattia – 45.0%, Ternopil – 40.2, Kharkiv – 40.0, Rivne – 32.6 and Zhytomyr – 32.3%. In areas such as Mykolaiv, Volyn, Donetsk, Kherson and Zaporizhia, the lowest percentage of positively responding wild boar numbers was observed at 10.7%, 9.5, 9.4, 8, and 8.3% respectively, therefore, in these areas the risk of infection of domestic animals with the Aujeszky disease virus from wild animals is significantly lower.
 Keywords: Aujeszky's disease; Wild pigs; Monitoring; Mapping; Antibodies

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