Formation of flour quality indicators in different winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes depending on abiotic and anthropogenic factors
One of the main tasks of agricultural science and production is to increase grain production, which meets the requirements of world standards. The quality of bread wheat grain significantly depends on the realization of genetic characteristics of the variety in interaction with soil and climatic conditions and cropping practice. Therefore, conducting research to determine the impact of abiotic and anthropogenic factors on the formation of flour quality indicators of winter bread wheat is necessary and relevant. The purpose of the study is to establish the peculiarities of flour quality indicators formation depending on hydrothermal conditions of different growing seasons and sowing dates after different preceding crops in the central part of the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. To achieve this goal the following methods were used: field, laboratory, statistical. The growing seasons of the study were contrasting in hydrothermal regime with an uneven distribution of precipitation by months. Significant variability of flour quality indicators of winter bread wheat depending on conditions of the years of the research was noted. Reliably significant influence of genotype on all flour quality indicators was established (15.3-26.6%). Hydrothermal conditions of the growing seasons had the greatest effect on sedimentation volume and gluten deformation index (31.7 and 33.6%, respectively), and the least effect (3.8%) on protein content. The maximum effect of the preceding crops and sowing dates was found on the protein content (5.0; 1.8%, respectively), the minimum on the gluten deformation index (0.8; 0.01%, respectively). There was a significant (7.0-12.9%) influence of the interaction of genotype × growing season factors on all studied characteristics of flour quality of winter bread wheat. By individual genotypes, different ratios of the influence of growing season conditions, sowing dates, preceding crops, and their interactions on the formation of flour quality characters were revealed. The maximum content of protein (13.4%) and wet gluten (28.9%) on average for all growing seasons were after the soybean as preceding crop, the highest sedimentation volume (67 ml) was after green manure, and the lowest these quality indicators (12.5%, 26.8% and 63 ml, respectively) were after corn. There was a general tendency to increase the sedimentation volume, protein and gluten content with shift in sowing dates from September 26 to October 16. The variety MIP Kniazhna with a complex of high flour quality indicators has been identified.