Productive Longevity Of European Holstein Cows In Conditions Of Industrial Technology
R. V. Milostiviy, M. P. Vysokos, O. O. Kalinichenko, T. O. Vasilenko, D. F. Milostiva
The lifetime productivity of European Holstein cows and their offspring under conditions of industrial milk production technology was studied. It is established that the productive longevity of European Holstein cow offspring in the conditions of the industrial complex was reduced by 1.0 lactation (td = 5.6 or P≥ 0.999), an average of 2.6 lactations. The lifetime milk yield was lower by 20.9% (td = 2.6 or P≥0.99), and the yield of milk fat and protein by 23.0 (td = 3.3 or P≥ 0.999) and 24.1% (Td = 4.8 or P≥ 0.999). At the same time, the influence of origin on lifelong milk yield was 9.5% (P≥0.95), on fat content - 22.7% (P≥0.999) and on milk protein - 37.5% (P≥0.999). The variation coefficient (Cv = 12.1 ... 79.2%) of animal signs has a sufficient level for carrying out effective breeding work. Revealed high phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients between the indices of lifetime productivity (r = + 0.92 ... + 0.98) showed that the breeding of any signs will have a positive effect on others ones. The coefficients of productive qualities heredity (h2 = 0.18 ... 0.23), prove that breeding based on the lifetime productivity signs will have a positive effect on the progress in dairy cattle breeding. Evaluation of dairy cattle productive longevity has great scientific and practical importance. Studies were carried out on Holstein cows using the data of the dairy cattle management system "Orsek". Biometric processing was carried out with the help of Stat Soft software "Statistica 7.0". The advantage of the study lies in the fact that the Holstein of different origins were kept in the same environmental conditions. Intra-breed differences in lifelong productivity of imported cows were revealed. The lifetime milk yield of Danish animals exceeded the average by1336 kg, fat by 73.4 and protein by60.7 kg. However, the offspring of imported Hungarian cows were the most suitable for industrial technology. They surpassed the Danish and German opponents by 0.4 and 0.5 lactation in productive longevity, by 9213 and9688 kgin lifetime milk yield, by 106 and239 kgin fat and by 72 and202 kgin milk protein. In general, in conditions of industrial milk production technology, the duration of first-generation cow productive life was reduced by 1.0 lactation (td = 5.6 or P≥ 0.999), in average it was 2.6 lactations. At the same time, the lifetime milk yield of imported animal offspring was significantly lower by7167 kg, that is, by 20.9% - decreased from 34245 to27078 kg(td = 2.6 or P≥0.99). As a consequence, the first generation cows’ milk fat and protein were lower by 23.0 (td = 3.3 or P≥ 0.999) and 24.1% (td = 4.8 or P≥0.999). It was found that the variability of the signs (Cv) ranged from 14.7 ... 15.4 (protein content) to 42.0 ... 52.6% (milk yield), increasing in the first generation from 11.4 ... 16, 8 to 53.6 ... 56.1%, which indicates the possibility of carrying out effective breeding. Female offspring of imported cows have a low heritability in lifetime milk yield (h2 = 0.02 ... 0.18), in milk fat yield (h2 = 0.03 ... 0.23) and in protein (h2 = 0.05 ... 0.19). At the same time, the density of the positive correlation between lifetime milk yield and the yield of fat and protein was quite high (r = + 0.92 ... + 0.98). Only Danish cow offspring had positive correlation "milk yield – fat content" (r = + 0.30). The single-factor ANOVA identified that the influence of origin on lifetime milk yield of first generation cows was 9.5% (P≥0.95), on fat content - 22.7% (P≥0.999) and on milk protein – 37.5% (P≥0.999). It shows the weakening of environmental influence in the conditions of annual unhandled keeping and the same feeding. The study results testify the possibility of an effective use of bulls and cows for dairy cattle breeding in Ukraine. However, the reduction of animal productive longevity in the conditions of industrial technology should serve as a stimulus for further in-depth study of the problem.