Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of soybean-rhizobium complexes and productivity of soybean culture as affected by the retardant chlormequat chloride


V.G. Kuryata, S.V.L.A. Golunova, I.V. Poprotska, O.O. Khodanitska

The effect of pre-sowing inoculation of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar ‘Podilska 1’ seeds, with the effectual strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 71 t, and the subsequent spraying the plants (within the stage of budding) with the antigibberellic preparation of chlormequat chloride in regard to the soy-rhizobium complex formation, as well as the symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity have been studied within the experiment. The anatomic- morphological and physiological parameters of the source and sink functioning as a system, the peculiarities of the crop formation and its quality affected by inoculation with strain 71 t and the subsequent retardant preparation were tested. As it goes out of the data, the use of the retardant in addition to inoculation proved to be effectual, for its use caused limitation of the linear growth of the plant, stimulating branching of the stem and resulted in growth of leaves in number, including the overall area of laminae per plant. Chlormequat chloride was a proven cause of more powerful mesostructure formation, previously due to the enhanced development of chlorenchyme towards growth of pure photosynthesis productivity. Moreover, the retardant caused the formation of a more powerful source-sink sphere of the plant, which provided with assimilates both the processes of symbiotic assimilation and the processes of formation and development of beans and seeds. The results obtained in the research testify to the strengthening of mutual interdependence of bean- rhizobium complexes: the number and weight of the nodules on the roots of inoculated plants increased due to the preparation. In consequence of the enhanced provision of bacteria with assimilates the nitrogen efficacy of the bean-rhesobium complexes essentially increased. It is also important to mention that the formation of plant productivity depended on enhanced supply of the processes of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with assimilates which led to a shift in the peak of activity of nitrogenase to a later stage of ontogenesis - the phase of green bean. Under conditions of the seed inoculation with strain 71t, the activity of nitrate reduction was higher than that of control, and increased from the phase of flowering to the phase of bean formation both in the roots and in the leaves of soybean plants. The use of chlormequat chloride against the background inoculation with the strain did not influence the activity of the ferments in the roots, though reduced it in the leaves, especially in the phase of bean formation. Hence, the effect of retardant chlormequat chloride on the nitrogen redistribution is directly carried out through stimulation of the forming and functioning of the bean-rhisobium complex, and not through the activation of nitrate reduction. Because of increased branching of the stems and placing of a greater number of beans, the formation of a larger leaf surface and the growth of photosynthetic activity per unit of the blade surface area, improvement of the nitrogen nutrition increased the yield capacity of the crop and improved the quality of the products – the contents of nitrogen in the seeds increased and the contents of unsaturated fatty acids in the soybean oil increased either. The suggested formula of the preparation did not cause the accumulation of chlormequat chloride in soybean seeds above the allowed norms.

Keywords: Glycine max (L) Merr.; morphogenesis; production process; retardants; symbiotic nitrogen fixation

Alam, F., Bhuiyan, M. A., Alam, S. S., Waghmode, T. R., Kim, P. J., & Lee, Y. B. (2015). Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil. Biosci Biotechnol Biohem, 79(10), 1660-1668. Doi: 10. 1080/09168451.20151044931.
AOAC. (2010). Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Analytical Chemist International (18th ed.). Revision 3. Association of Analytical Chemist, USA.
Bonelli, L. E., Monzon, J. P., Cerrudo, A., Rizzalli, R. H., & Andrade, F. H. (2016). Maize grain yield components and source-sink relationship as affected by the delay in sowing date. Field Crops Research, 198, 215-225. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2016.09.003.
Carvalho, M. E. A., Castro, C. P. R., Castro F. M. V., & Mendes A. C. C. (2016). Are plant growth retardants a strategy to decrease lodging and increase yield of sunflower. Comunicata Scientiae, 7 (1), 154-164. doi: 10.14295/CS.v7i1.1286.
Espindul?, M. C., Rocha, V. S., Souza, L. T., Souza, M. A., & Grossi, M. A. S. (2010). Effect of growth regulators on wheat stem elongation. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy, 32(10), 109-11. DOI:
Fahad, S., Hussain, S., Saud, S., Hassan, S., Ihsan, Z., Shah, A. N., Wu, C., Yousaf, M., Nasim, W., Alharby, H., Alghabari, F., & Huang, J. (2016). Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1250. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01250.
Hedden, P., & Thomas, S. G. (2016). The gibberellins. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9781119210436.
Kasem, M. M., & Abd El-Baset, ??. ??. (2015). Studding the influence of some growth retardants as a chemical mower on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(5), 255-258. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20150305.12.
Kiriziy, D. A., Stasyk, ??. ??., Pryadkina, G. ?., & Shadchyna, ?. ??. (2014). Fotosintez. ?. 2. Assimilyatsiya ???2 i mehanizmy jejyo regulyatsii. Logos, Kiev (in Russian).
Kots, S. Y., Morgun, V. V, & Patyika, V. F. (2011). Biologicheskaya fiksatsiya azota: bobovo-rizobialnyiy simbioz: monografiya: t.1. Logos, 523 (in Russian).
Koutroubas, S. D., & Damalas, C. A. (2016). Morpho-physiological responses of sunflower to foliar applications of chlormequatchloride (CCC). 2016. Bioscience Journal, 32(6), 1493-1501. DOI: 10.14393/BJ-v32n6a2016-33007.
Kumar, S., Sreenivas, G., Satyanarayana, J., Guha, A. (2012). Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown Camelina sativa L. Crantz. BSK Research Notes, 5(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-137.
Kuryata, V. G., & Golunova, L. ?. (2018). Peculiarities of the formation and functioning of soybean rhizobial complexes and the productivity of soybean culture under the influence of retardant of paclobutrazol. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(3), 96-103 (in Ukrainian).
Kuryata, V. G., & Kravets, O. O. (2018). Features of morphogenesis, accumulation and redistribution of assimilate and nitrogen containing compounds in tomatoes under retardants treatment. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 356-362. DOI:
Kuryata, V. G., & Polyvanyi, S. V. (2018). Features of morphogenesis, donor-acceptor system formation and efficiency of crop production under chlormequat chloride treatment on poppy oil. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(4), 165-174.
Lee, H.-I., Lee, J.-H., Park, K.-H., Sangurdekar, D., & Chang, W.-S. (2012). Effect of soybean coumestrol on Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodulation ability, biofilm formation, and transcription profile. Applied and Environmental Microbiologi, 78(8), 2896-2903. doi: 10.1128/AEM.07336-11.
Li, N., Li, J. M., Zhai, Z., Li, Z. H., & Duan, L. S. (2010). Effects of chemical regulator on the lodging resistance traits, agricultural characters and yield of maize. Journal of Maize Sciences, 18, 38-42. doi: 10.13597/
Macedo, W. R., Araujo, D. K., Santos, V. M., Camargo, G. M., & Castroand, P. R. (2017). Plant growth regulators on sweet sorghum: physiological and nutritional value analysis. Comunicata Scientiae, 8(1), 170-175. DOI: 10.14295/CS.v8i1.1315.
Matsoukis, A., Gasparatos, D., & Chronopoulou-Sereli A. (2015). Mepiquat chloride and shading effects on specific leaf area and K, P, Ca, Fe and Mn content of Lantana camara L. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 27(1), 121-125. DOI:10.9755/ejfa.v27i1.17450.
Panyapruek, S., Sinsiri, W., Sinsiri, N., Arimatsu, P., & Polthanee, A. (2016). Effect of paclobutrazol growth regulator on tuber production and starch quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 15(1-2), 1-7. doi:10.3923/ajps.2016.1.7.
Pavlista, A. D. (2013). Influence of foliar-applied growth retardants on russet burbank potato tuber production. Am. J. Potato, 90, 395-401. doi: 10.1007/s12230-013-9307-2.
Peng, D., Chen, X., Yin, Y., Lu, K., Yang, W., Tang, Y., Wang, Z. (2014). Lodging resistance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Lignin accumulation and its related enzymes activities due to the application of paclobutrazol or gibberellin acid. Field Crops Research, (157), 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2013.11.015.
Poprotska, I. V., & Kuryata, V. G. (2017). Features of gas exchange and use of reserve substances in pumpkin seedlings in conditions of skoto- and photomorphogenesis under the influence of gibberellin and chlormequat-chloride. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(1), 71-76.
Rademacher, W. (2016). ?hemical regulators of gibberellin status and their application in plant production. Annual Plant Reviews, 49, 359-403. doi: 10.1002/9781119312994.apr0541.
Rogach, V. V., Poprotska, I. V., & Kuryata, V. G. (2016). Effect of gibberellin and retardants on morphogenesis, photosynthetic apparatus and productivity of the potato. Visnik Dnipropetrovsk University Seria Biology. Ekology, 24(2), 416-419 (in Ukrainian). doi:10.15421/011656.
Rogach, V. V., Kravets, O. O., Buina, O. I., & Kuryata, V. G. (2018). Dynamic of accumulation and redistribution of various carbohydrate forms and nitrogen in organs of tomatoes under treatment with retardants. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosistems, 9(2), 293-299 (in Ukrainian). doi: 10.15421/021843.
Sang-Kuk, K., & Hak-Yoon, K. (2014). Effects of gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors on oil, secoisolaresonolodiglucoside, seed yield and endogenous gibberellin content in flax. Korean Journal of Plant Resources, 27(3), 229-235. doi: 10.7732/kjpr.2014.27.3.229.
Sousa Lima, G. M., Pereira, M. C. T., Oliveira, M. B., Nietsche, S., Mizobutsi, G. P., Filho, W. M. (2016). Floral induction management in ‘Palmer’ mango using uniconazole. Ciencia Rural, 46(8), 1350-1356. doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20150940.
Souza, L., Espíndula, M. C., Rocha, V. S., Fernandes dos Santos Dias, D. C., & Souza, M. A. (2010). Growth retardants in wheat and its effect in physiological quality of seeds. Ciencia Rural, 40(6), 1431-1434. DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782010000600031.
Taniguchi, T., Marayama, N., Hasegawa, M., & Ishibashi, Y. (2018). Vegetative growth after flowering through gibberellins biosintesis regulates pod setting rate in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Plant Signaling & Behavior, 13(8), 1-5. DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2018.1473668.
Wang, Y., Gu, W., Xie, T., Li, L., Sun, Y., Zhang, H., Li, J., & Wei, S. (2016). Mixed compound of DCPTA and CCC increases maize yield by improving plant morphology and upregulating photosynthetic capacity and antioxidants. PLOS ONE, 11(2), e0149404. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149404.
Yan, W., Yanhong, Y., Wenyu, Y., Taiwen, Y., Weiguo, L., & Wang, X. (2013). Responses of root growth and nitrogen transfer metabolism to uniconazole, a growth retardant, during the seedling stage of soybean under relay strip. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis Intercropping System, 44(22), 3267-3280. doi: 10.1080/00103624.2013.840838.
Yan, Y., Wan, Y., Liu, W., Wang, X., Yong, T., & Yang, W. (2015). Influence of seed treatment with uniconazole powder on soybean growth, photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation after flowering and yield in relay strip intercropping system. Plant Production Science, 18(3), 295-301.
Yang, L., Yang, D., Yan, X., Cui, L., Wang, Z., & Yuan, H. (2016). The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation. Scientific Reports, 60, 1-12. doi: 10.1038/srep35447.
Yu, S. M., Lo, S. F., & Ho, T. D. (2015). Source-sink communication: regulated by hormone, nutrient, and stress cross-signaling. Trends in Plant Science, 20(12), 844-857. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2015.10.009.
Zhang, W., Xu, F., Hua, C., & Cheng, S. (2013). Effect of chlorocholine chloride on chlorophyll, photosynthesis, soluble sugar and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 41(1), 97-103. doi: 10.15835/nbha4118294.

Share this article