The current state of water quality and benthic invertebrate fauna in Chikke Stream (North-Central Nigeria)

Abstract

Y.M. Mohammed, F.O. Arimoro, A.V. Ayanwale, K.M. Adamu, U.N. Keke, M.D. Abubakar, A.C. Achebe

The Chikke Stream Bida, Northcentral Nigeria is an important water source for its riparian communities. This study evaluates the impact of habitat structure and anthropogenic activities on Chikke Stream using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate assemblages collected over eight months (January-August 2017) using modified kick sampling techniques. Three sampling stations characterized by various human activities were selected across the stream. The physicochemical parameters examined were the water temperature (24.3-27.6 °C), depth (17.0-28.6 cm), flow velocity (0.301-0.408 m/s), pH (6.0-8.9), conductivity (30-136 µS/cm), alkalinity (10-26.0 mg/L), turbidity (28-152 NTU), dissolved oxygen (2.60-8.0 mg/L), and biochemical oxygen demand (3.0-5.1 mg/L); we also determined the contamination of nitrates (0.99-4.20 mg/L) and phosphates (0.37-0.85 mg/L). A total of 719 individuals from 35 species and 24 families of invertebrates were collected from the sampling stations. The CCA results revealed positive correlation between species abundances and measured environmental variables. benthic invertebrates clustered strongly by stations than by seasons, indicating that water quality differences between the stations were responsible for the observed differences in the macroinvertebratebiotic. High densities of pollution tolerant macroinvertebrate groups and the deteriorating quality of the surface water during the sampling period indicated organic pollution stress caused by different anthropogenic activities, decomposing domestic wastes, and vegetative nature of the stream. Bottom sediment, microhabitat obliteration, and poor water quality were the key factors responsible for the macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in the Chikke Stream.

Keywords: Physicochemical, Macroinvertebrates, Assemblages Anthropogenic activities, Chikke Stream.
 

References

 

Abowei, J. E. N. & Ekubo, A. T. (2011). Aspect of Aquatic pollution in Nigeria. Research Journal of environmental and earth sciences, 3 (6), 676-693.

Amini-Yekta, F., Kiabi, B., Ardalan, A. & Shokri, M. (2013). Temporal Variation in Rocky Intertidal Gastropods of the Qeshm Island in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Persian, Gulf, 4 (13), 9-18.

Andem, A. B., Okorafor K. A., Eyo V. O. & Ekpo, P. B. (2014). Ecological impact assessment and limnological characterization in the intertidal region of Calabar River using benthic Macroinvertebrates as bioindicator organisms. International Journal of Fish Aquaculture Studies, 1 (2), 8–14.

Anyanwu, E. D. (2012). Physico-Chemical and Some Trace Metal Analysis of Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5 (1), 47-54.

APHA (American Public Health Association) (2012). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. Maryland U.S.A. United Book Press Inc. Baltimore.

Arimoro, F. O. & Ikomi, R. B. (2008). Response of macroinvertebrates to abattoir wastes and other anthropogenic activities in a municipal stream in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environmentalist, 28, 85-98.

Arimoro, F. O. & James, H. M. (2008). Preliminary pictorial guide to the macroinvertebrates of Delta State Rivers, southern Nigeria. Albany Museum, Grahamstown.

Arimoro, F. O. & Keke, U. N. (2016). The intensity of human-induced impact on the distribution and diversity of Macroinvertebrates and water quality of Gbako River, North Central Nigeria. Energy Ecology and Environment, 16 (8), 25-36.

Arimoro, F. O., Chukwujindu, M. A., Iwegbue B. & Enemudo, O. (2012). Effects of Cassava effluent on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in a Tropical Stream in Southern Nigeria. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 18 (2).

Arimoro, F. O., Ikomi, R. B., Ajuziego, I. O. & Nwadukwe, F. O. (2011). Temporal and spatial variability in the structure of macroinvertebrates communities and environmental variables of a Niger Delta Creek. African Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 36, 57-66.

Arimoro, F. O., Odume, N. O., Uhunoma, S. I. & Edegbene, A. O. (2015). Anthropogenic impact on water chemistry and benthic macroinvertebrate associated changes in a southern Nigeria stream. Environmental Monitoring Assessment. 187, 1–14.

Ayoade, A. A. & Olusegun, A. O. (2012). Impacts of Effluents on the Limnology of a Tropical River, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environment Management, 16 (2), 201–207.

Dadi-Mamud, N. J., Oniye, S. J., Auta, J. & Ajibola, V. O. (2014), Community pattern and diversity index Of Macro-Invertebrates in relation to surface water interface of River Ndakotsu, Lapai Nigeria. Asian Journal of Science and Technology. 5 (9), 546-552.

Day, J. A, Harrison A. D., & de Moor I. J., (2002). Guides to the freshwater invertebrates of Southern Africa, volume 9. Diptera TT 201/02 Pretoria: Water Research Commission.

De Moor, I. J., Day, J. A., & De Moor, F. C. (2003). Guides to the freshwater invertebrates of Southern Africa, volume 7. Insecta I: Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Plecoptera. Prepared by Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa.

Dimowo, B. O. (2013). Assessment of Some Physico-chemical Parameters of River Ogun (Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria) in Comparison With National and International Standards. International Journal of Aquaculture, 3 (15), 79-84.

Edegbene, A. O., Arimoro, F. O., Odoh, O. & Ogidiaka, E. (2015). Effect of anthropogenicity on the composition and diversity of aquatic insect of a municipal River North Central Nigeria. Bioscience Research in Today’s World, 1 (1), 55-66.

Edokpayi, A. C., Olowoporoku, A. O. & Uwadiae, R. E. (2010). The hydrochemistry and macrobenthic fauna characteristics of an urban draining creek. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 2(8), 196-203,

Emere, M. C., & Nasiru, C. E. (2009). Macroinvertebrate as Indicator of the water quality of an Urbanized stream, Kaduna Nigeria. Journal of aquatic sciences, 7, 2-3.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA, 1991) Guideline and standards for Environmental pollution control in Nigeria. Federal Environmental Protection Agency, 27, 20

Garcia-Roger, E. M., Sánchez-Montoya, M. M., Gomez R, Suárez, M. L., Vidal-Abarca, M. R., Latron, J., Rieradevall, M. & Prat, N. (2011) Seasonal changes in habitat features influence aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in perennial versus temporary Mediterranean streams. Aquatic Sciences, 73, 567–579.

García-Roger, E. M., Sánchez-Montoya, M. M., Gomez R, Suárez, M. L., Vidal-Abarca, M. R., Latron, J., Rieradevall, M. & Prat, N. (2011) Seasonal changes in habitat features influence aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in perennial versus temporary Mediterranean streams. Aquatic Sciences, 73, 567–579.

Gerber, A. & Gabriel, M. J. M. (2002). Aquatic invertebrates of South African Rivers field guide. Institute of water quality studies South Africa.

Giam, X. & Olden, J. D. (2016). Environment and predation governing fish community assembly in temperate streams. Global Ecology & Biogeography. 5.

Hynes H. B. M. (1961). The Invertebrate fauna at Welsh Mountain Stream. Archive Hydrobiology., 57, 344-388.

Ibemenuga, K. N. & Nzekwe, O. I. (2017). Effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Effluents on Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in a Rainforest Lotic Freshwater Ecosystem, Southern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Applied Natural Sciences, 2 (1), 46-53.

Ibezute, A. C., Asibor, G. I. & Ibezute, G. I. (2016). Ecological Assessment of Brewery Effluent Impact on the Macrobenthic Invertebrates of Ikpoba River, Edo State, Nigeria International Journal of Ecosystem, 6 (3), 47-54

Ibrahim, B. U., Auta J. & Balogun J. K. (2009). Assessment of the physicochemical parameters of Kontagora Reservoir Niger state. Bayero Journal of pure and applied sciences, 2 (1), 64-69.

Ikusima, I., Lim, R.P. & Furtado J. I. (1982). Environmental conditions in: J.I. Futado and S Mori(eds). Tasek Bera the Ecology of a Tropical Freshwater swamp. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. Pp 55-148.

Keke, U. N., Arimoro, F. O., Auta, Y. I. & Ayanwale, A. V. (2017). Temporal and spatial variability in macroinvertebrate community structure in relation to environmental variables in Gbako River, Niger State, Nigeria. Tropical Ecology, 58 (2), 229–240.

Keke, U. N., Arimoro, F. O., Ayanwale, A. V. & Aliyu, S. M. (2015). Physicochemical parameters and Heavy Metals content of surface water in downstream Kaduna River, Zungeru, Niger state, Nigeria. Applied science research Journal, 3 (2), 46-57.

Kun, Li, Chunguang, H., Jie, Z., Zhenxing, Z., Hongyong, X., Zhongqiang, W., Haijun, Y. & Lianxi, S., (2015). Long-term changes in water quality and Macroinvertebrates communities of a subtropical river in south China. Water 2015, 7, 63-80.

Linares, M. S., Faccioli, G. G. & Freitas, L.M. (2013) Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and seasonal variation in a neotropical stream in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. Biota Neotropical, 13 (3).

Marques, M.J., Martinez –Conde, E. & Rovira, J.V. (2003). Effects of zinc and lead mining on the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of a fluvial Ecosystem. Water Air and soil pollution. 148:363-388.

Mustapha, M. K. (2008). Assessment of the Water Quality of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria, Using Selected Physico-Chemical Parameters Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 8, 309-319.

Nicola, G. G., Almodóvar, A. & Elvira, B. (2010). Effects of environmental factors and predation on benthic communities in headwater streams. Aquatic Science, 72, 419-429.

Nkwoji J. A., Yakub, A., Ajani, G. E., Balogun, K. J., Renner, K. O., Igbo, J. K., Ariyo, A. A. & Bello, B. O. (2010). Seasonal variations in the water chemistry and benthic macroinvertebrates of a south western Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of American Science, 6(3), 85-92.

Nyenje, P., M., Foppen, J. W., Uhlenbrook, S., Kulabako, R. & Muwanga, A. (2010). Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa- A review. Science & Total Environment, 408, 447–455.

Odume, O. N., Muller, W. J., Arimoro, F. O., & Palmer, C. G., (2012). The impact of water quality deterioration on macroinvertebrate communities in the Swartkops River, South Africa: a multimetric approach, African Journal of Aquatic Science, 37 (2), 191-200.

Raji, M. I. O., Ibrahim, Y. K. E., Tytler, B. A. & Ehinmidu, J.O. (2015). Physicochemical Characteristics of Water Samples Collected from River Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 5, 194-199.

SON, (2005). Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water, Nigerian industrial standard NS554, Standard organisation of Nigeria Lagos. 30pp.

Umar, D. M., Hardling J. S. & Winterbourn, M. J. (2013). Photographic guide of freshwater Invertetbrates of the Mambilla Plateau Nigeria. Published by School of Biological Sciences University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

WHO (2008). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, Vol.1, recommendations, 3rd ed. World Health Organization. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/204411/

Wibowo, D. N. & Santoso, S. (2017). Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity as biomonitoring of organic pollutions of river ecosystems in Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 18, 671-676.

Zajac, R. N., Vozarik, J. M. & Gibbons, B. R. (2013). Spatial and temporal patterns in macrofaunal diversity components relative to sea floor landscape structure. PLoS ONE, 8 (6).

 

Share this article