Research - (2021) Volume 11, Issue 7

Harmfulness of pea pod borer (Etiella zinckenella Tr. 1832) in soybeans in the eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

N.V. Lutytska1, S. Stankevych1*, O. Romanov1, V.G. Mikheev1 and H.O. Balan2
 
*Correspondence: S. Stankevych, V.V. Dokuchaev Kharkiv National Agrarian University, Ukraine, Email:

Author info »

Abstract

Soybean is the main leguminous crop in the world. Its grain is balanced in protein and digestible amino acids. Among the dangerous soybean pests, scientists distinguish pea pod borer (leguminous) (Etiella zinckenella Tr.). Our research on soybean crops was carried out during 2018-2020 in the state enterprise 'Experimental Farm' Elitne', Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region. The plants were examined for the presence of pea pod borer caterpillars and damaged beans. All the results obtained were processed and inserted into tables. The number of caterpillars in soybean plants in 2018 ranged from 2 to 29 specimens/100 plants, in 2019 from 2 to 22 specimens/100 plants, in 2020 from 2 to 21 specimens/100 plants. When soybean plants were examined, the damage was also found to beans and seeds. In 2018, the percentage of damage ranged from 0.3% to 3.7%, in 2019 from 0.2% to 0.9% and in 2020 from 0.6% to 1.8%. The percentage of damaged seeds was: in 2018-from 0.2% to 3.4%, in 2019-from 0.1% to 0.8% and in 2020-from 0.6% to 1.8%. In our study, we conducted experiments on damaged seeds by pea pod borer under laboratory conditions of V. Ya. Yuriev Institute of Plant Cultivation of NAAS. We have done a seed analysis for fat and protein content. On average, for 2018-2020, the following data were obtained: undamaged seeds contained 37.05% protein, 21.10% fat, and damaged seeds-38.61% and 19.75%, respectively. During 2018-2020, soybean crops were monitored for pea pod borer caterpillars, and the most colonized varieties were sprayed with insecticides. In 2018, Nurel D showed the greatest technical efficiency on day 3, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha)-28%, on day 7-Antygusin, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-59%, on day 14-Preparation Koragen, 20% suspension concentrate. (0.2 l/ha)-82%; in 2019, the best technical efficiency on day 3 was shown by Antygusin preparation, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha) -33%, on day 7-also preparation Antygusin, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha) -53%, on day 14 - Koragen preparation, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-73%; in 2020, the best technical efficiency on day 3 was shown by Chlorpyrivit-agro, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha)-29%, on day 7-Antygusin, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-52%, on 14 day preparation Koragen, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-81%.

Keywords

Legumes, soybeans, pests, pea pod borer, harmfulness, damage.

Introduction

Soybean is one of the most important crops in world agriculture and is used successfully to solve the problem of increasing vegetable protein and oil production. Pea pod borer (Etiella zinckenella Tr.) is a pest that can destroy soybean yield up to 90%. The harmfulness of pea pod borer reduces the grain yield (the seeds of damaged beans are partially or entirely eaten inside), spreading bacterial and fungal diseases on the damaged grain.

The pea pod borer (Etiella zinckenella Tr.) is a dangerous pest in soybean crops. Active colonization is facilitated by the close placement of crops from Siberian pea shrub and locust tree plantations. The natural habitat of the pea pod borer (legume) (Etiella zinckenella Tr.) covers the central part of Russia (mainly in the steppe zone and the southern part of the Forest-Steppe of the European part), the North Caucasus, southern Siberia, the Far East, the Baltic states, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Western Europe (up to southern Finland), North America, Asia Minor, the Middle East, India, China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia. The pest is also imported to Australia and America (Graham, 1976; Lutytska, Stankevych, Zabrodina et al., 2019).

Russian scientists A.N. Frolov and M.I. Saulych (Luticka & Stankevych, 2019;

http://www.agroatlas.ru/ru/content/pests/Etiella_zinckenella/map/) compiled the area of the prevalence of pea pod borer and zones of its harmfulness, within which the zone of average harmfulness is distinguished (south of Ukraine, Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, Rostov region, lower Volga region), where the loss of leguminous on average can be 5-6%; the zone of weak harmfulness, where yield losses, as a rule, are below 5% of the limit, in the European part of the former USSR, it covers the territory of legumes growing, in the Asian part-the territory of soybean cultivation with an average July temperature of at least 20 C.

In Ukraine, the species is widespread everywhere, but more numerous and harmful in the Steppe and the south of the Forest-Steppe. It damages pea, lentil, bean, soybean, lupine, locust tree, and Siberian pea shrub, honey locust, in Transcarpathia-hazelnut, watermelon seeds. The number of pea pod borers and their harmfulness increases in dry years. The proximity of soybean crops to the plantations of the Siberian pea shrub and locust tree facilitates greater colonization of beans. According to V. I. Sichkar and O. A. Hrykun (Sichkar & Hrykun, 1982), in Odessa, Mykolaiv, Crimea, and other regions, pea pod borer causes grain loss of up to 1-2 centners/ha of grain and significantly reduces the quality of grain.

Caterpillars of this pest live in beans, feed on young seeds, and often move from one bean to another. In this region, during the spring and summer period, the peapod borer usually produces two generations: the first develops on the Siberian pea shrub, pea, and the second generation on the soybean and locust tree. Given the great harmfulness of this pest, they studied the variability of damage depending on the genotype of the plant and weather conditions, as well as some resistance mechanisms. Similar studies of the Mexican bean beetle, Chloridea cotton moth, leafroller, and other pests are conducted in the United States and Brazil (Graham, 1976; Schillinger, 1976; Smith & Brim, 1979).

As source material, we used a large set of collected samples of soybean varieties from different parts of the world and promising breeding numbers created at the All-Union Breeding and Genetic Institute (Odessa). For a reliable assessment, a favorable background was created to increase the number of pests. The experimental plot was located near the plantations of the Siberian pea shrub and locust tree (no more than 100 m), which are natural reserves of the pea pod borer. Several rows of peas were seeded around the perimeter, which made it possible to create a high density of the first generation of the pest. The samples were studied for three and more years. The degree of damage was calculated mainly during the phase of full ripeness in the laboratory. Damaged beans were opened, and the number of fully or partially damaged seeds was counted. The flight dynamics of second-generation butterflies were studied under field conditions. To do this, we watched the pest's flight for 20-30 days, using a light trap. Butterflies were caught every day or in a day, depending on the activity of the flight, as well as weather conditions (the light trap was not turned on in rainy weather) (Sichkar, Lopatina & Grikun, 1991).

Materials and Methods

The research aims to monitor the colonization of soybean crops by the pea pod borer and determine the level of damage to beans and soybean grain.

Our research on soybean crops was carried out during 2018-2020 in the Kharkiv district of the State Enterprise' Experimental Farm' Elitne, Kharkiv region. Plants were examined for the presence of pea pod borer caterpillars and to determine the percentage of damage to beans and seeds (Luticka & Stankevych, 2018b; Luticka & Stankevych, 2019a).

Our research on soybean crops was carried out during 2018-2020 in the Kharkiv district of the State Enterprise' Experimental Farm' Elitne, Kharkiv region. Plants were examined for the presence of pea pod borer caterpillars and to determine the percentage of damage to beans and seeds (Luticka & Stankevych, 2018b; Luticka & Stankevych, 2019a).

During the route survey of soybean crops, the presence of pea pod borer caterpillars in beans was monitored. Long-term data are inserted into Table 1.

Sowing period Variety Caterpillars which were detected, specimens/100 plants
2018 2019 2020
III decade of April Biliavka 4 5 2
Sprytna 2 4 3
Malvina 2 4 2
Average   2.7 4.3 2.3
II decade of May Biliavka 4 2 5
Sprytna 6 5 8
Malvina 8 4 6
Annushka 7 3 6
Korada 3 5 2
Vyshyvanka 6 2 5
Kobza 8 6 11
Krasunia 4 7 6
Baika 6 3 7
Perlyna 9 5 11
Raiduga 2 5 10
Melodiia 4 9 8
Pysanka 10 7 11
Sloboda 6 4 8
Aleksandryt 7 5 9
ESC Senator 8 4 2
ES Mentor 2 2 4
Aligator 6 2 5
Syverka 1 8 7
Adamos 6 7 10
Muza 11 5 9
Average   5.9 4.8 7.1
III decade of May Biliavka 25 10 15
Sprytna 21 11 21
Malvina 29 15 18
average   25 12 18

Table 1. Colonization of soybean varieties by pea pod borer caterpillars depending in the sowing period in 2018-2020 in the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine.

According to the table, the smallest number of pea pod borer caterpillars in 2018 was recorded in Sprytna, Malvina (III decade of April), Raiduga, ES Mentor (II decade of May) 2 specimens/100 plants. All caterpillars were of Malvina variety (III decade of May)-29 specimens/100 plants.

In 2019, the lowest number was in the Biliavka, Vyshyvanka, ES Mentor, Aligator varieties (II decade of May) 2 specimens/100 plants. The Biliavka variety had the most significant number (III decade of April)-22 specimens/100 plants.

In 2020, the smallest number of caterpillars was observed in the Biliavka and Malvina varieties (III decade of May), Korada, ESC Senator (II decade of May) 2 specimens/100 plants. Most of the all on soybean crops of Sprytna variety in the amount of 21 specimens/100 plants.

To determine the percentage of damage to beans by pea pod borer in soybean crops, intact and damaged generative organs were calculated in each variety and three sowing terms. Ten plants were selected for each variety at 10 locations. Data are inserted into Tables 2, 3, 4.

Sowing period Variety Beans (pieces)
In total, for 100 plants Intact Damaged %
III decade of April Biliavka 2431 2417 14 0.6
Sprytna 3053 3045 8 0.3
Malvina 3294 3276 18 0.5
average   2926 2912.7 13.3 0.47
II decade of May Biliavka 2362 2321 41 1.8
Sprytna 3178 3134 35 1.1
Malvina 3201 3162 39 1.2
Annushka 2698 2671 27 1.0
Korada 3402 3380 22 0.7
Vyshyvanka 2987 2944 43 1.5
Kobza 2604 2573 31 1.2
Krasunia 2341 2298 43 1.9
Baika 3201 3164 37 1.2
Perlyna 2571 2541 30 1.2
Raiduga 2385 2340 45 1.9
Melodiia 2434 2402 32 1.3
Pysanka 2806 2777 29 1.0
Sloboda 2453 2421 32 1.3
Aleksandryt 3069 3050 19 0.6
ESC Senator 3283 3267 16 0.5
ES Mentor 3207 3187 20 0.6
Aligator 3531 3518 13 0.4
Syverka 2809 2770 39 1.4
Adamos 2411 2386 25 1.0
Muza 2734 2703 31 1.1
Average   2841.3 2810 30.9 1.1
III decade of May Biliavka 2632 2537 95 3.7
Sprytna 2598 2529 69 2.7
Malvina 2842 2770 72 2.6
Average   2690.7 2612 78.7 3.0

Table 2. Percentage of damaged beans in the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region (July 2018).

Sowing period Variety Beans (pieces)
In total, for 100 plants Intact Damaged %
III decade of April Biliavka 2541 2536 5 0.2
Sprytna 2980 2973 7 0.2
Malvina 3240 3231 9 0.3
Average   2920.3 2913.3 7 0.2
II decade of May Biliavka 2602 2591 11 0.4
Sprytna 3161 3148 13 0.4
Malvina 2945 2930 15 0.5
Annushka 2807 2789 18 0.6
Korada 3575 3563 21 0.6
Vyshyvanka 2958 2943 15 0.5
Kobza 2680 2661 19 0.7
Krasunia 2374 2352 22 0.9
Baika 3423 3406 17 0.5
Perlyna 2769 2749 20 0.7
Raiduga 2478 2465 13 0.5
Melodiia 2595 2577 18 0.7
Pysanka 2759 2735 24 0.9
Sloboda 2464 2443 21 0.9
Aleksandryt 3093 3083 10 0.3
ESC Senator 3283 3270 13 0.4
ES Mentor 3342 3334 8 0.2
Aligator 3567 3548 19 0.5
Syverka 2669 2648 21 0.8
Adamos 2517 2494 23 0.9
Muza 2763 2748 15 0.5
Average   2896.4 2880 17 0.6
III decade of May Biliavka 2627 2605 22 0.8
Sprytna 2692 2674 18 0.7
Malvina 2864 2840 24 0.8
Average   2727.7 2706.3 21.3 0.8

Table 3. Percentage of damaged beans by pea pod borer caterpillars in the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region (July 2019).

Sowing period Variety Beans (pieces)
In total, for 100 plants Intact Damaged %
III decade of April Biliavka 2612 2568 29 1.1
Sprytna 3197 3166 18 0.6
Malvina 3473 3434 20 0.6
Average   3094 3056 22.3 0.8
II decade of May Biliavka 2595 2556 39 1.5
Sprytna 3294 3251 43 1.3
Malvina 3053 3013 40 1.3
Annushka 2768 2739 29 1.1
Korada 3762 3725 37 1.0
Vyshyvanka 3027 2976 51 1.7
Kobza 2721 2683 38 1.4
Krasunia 2430 2388 42 1.8
Baika 3526 3479 47 1.4
Perlyna 2629 2593 36 1.4
Raiduga 2437 2396 41 1.7
Melodiia 2584 2545 39 1.5
Pysanka 2881 2846 35 1.2
Sloboda 2523 2496 27 1.1
Aleksandryt 3150 3129 21 0.7
ESC Senator 3395 3383 12 0.4
ES Mentor 3392 3377 15 0.4
Aligator 3664 3646 18 0.5
Syverka 2731 2697 34 1.3
Adamos 2562 2533 29 1.1
Muza 2820 2783 37 1.3
Average   2949.7 2915.9 33.8 1.2
III decade of May Biliavka 2764 2728 36 1.3
Sprytna 2681 2642 39 1.5
Malvina 2983 2938 45 1.5
Average   2809.3 2789.0 40.0 1.4

Table 4. Percentage of damaged beans by pea pod borer caterpillars in the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region (July 2020).

According to Table 2 in the first sowing period (III decade of April), the number of beans per 100 plants ranged from 2431 pieces/100 plants in the Biliavka variety to 3294 in the Malvina variety; in the second sowing period (II decade of May) it reached 2341 pieces/100 plants in the Krasunia variety to 3531 pieces/100 plants in the Aligator variety; in the third period (III decade of May), the number of beans per 100 plants ranged from 2598 pieces/100 plants in the Sprytna variety to 2842 pieces/100 plants in the Malvina variety.

The number of damaged beans per 100 plants in the first sowing period (III decade of April) ranged from 8 to 18 pieces/100 plants in the Sprytna and Malvina varieties, respectively; in the second sowing period (II decade of May), 13 pieces/100 plants (Aligator) to 45 pieces/100 plants (Raduga) were damaged; in the III period (III decade of May), from 69 pieces/100 plants (Sprytna) to 95 pieces/100 plants (Biliavka) were damaged. The lowest percentage of damage to beans was observed in the first sowing period, 0.3% (Sprytna), the highest, 3.7% (Biliavka), in the third sowing period.

According to Table 3, in the first sowing period (III decade of April), the number of beans per 100 plants reached from 2541 pieces/100 plants on the Biliavka variety to 3240 pieces/100 plants on the Malvina variety; in the second sowing period (II decade of May), reached from 2374 pieces/100 plants on the Krasunia variety to 3575 pieces/100 plants on the Korada variety; in the third period (III decade of May), the number of beans per 100 plants was from 2627 pieces/100 plants on the Biliavka variety to 2864 pieces/100 plants on Malvina variety.

The number of damaged beans per 100 plants in the first sowing period (III decade of April) was from 5 to 9 pieces in the Sprytna and Malvina varieties, respectively; in the second sowing period (II decade of May), 11 pieces/100 plants (Biliavka) to 24 pieces/100 plants (Pysanka) were damaged; in the third period (III decade of May), from 18 pieces/100 plants (Sprytna) to 24 pieces/100 plants (Malvina) were damaged. The lowest percentage of damage to beans was observed in the first sowing period-0.3% (Malvina), the highest-0.8% (Biliavka and Malvina) in the third sowing period.

The number of damaged beans per 100 plants in the first sowing period (III decade of April) ranged from 18 to 29 pieces in the Sprytna and Biliavka varieties, respectively; in the second sowing period (II decade of May), 12 pieces/100 plants (ESC Senator) to 51 pieces/100 plants (Vyshyvanka) were damaged; in the third period (III decade of May), 36 pieces/100 plants (Biliavka) to 45 pieces/100 plants (Malvina) were damaged. The lowest percentage of damage to beans was observed in the first sowing period of 0.6% (Malvina and Sprytna), the highest at 1.5% (Sprytna and Malvina) in the third sowing period.

To determine the percentage of seed damage during the growing season 2018-2020, we counted the number of seeds per plant and the number of intact and damaged seeds and calculated the percentage of damage. In total, there were 100 plants in each variety in the sample. The data are presented in Table 5.

Sowing period Variety Seeds (pieces)
In total, for 100 plants Intact Damaged %
III decade of April Biliavka 4851 4826 25 0.5
Sprytna 6101 6087 14 0.2
Malvina 6498 6465 33 0.5
average   5816.7 5792.7 24 0.4
II decade of May Biliavka 4724 4649 75 1.6
Sprytna 6312 6245 67 1.1
Malvina 6385 6311 74 1.2
Annushka 5321 5273 48 0.9
Korada 6772 6733 39 0.6
Vyshyvanka 5935 5854 81 1.4
Kobza 5176 5120 56 1.1
Krasunia 4602 4523 79 1.7
Baika 6365 6297 68 1.1
Perlyna 5142 5087 55 1.1
Raiduga 4745 4662 83 1.8
Melodiia 4812 4755 57 1.2
Pysanka 5602 5550 52 0.9
Sloboda 4893 4838 55 1.1
Aleksandryt 6101 6067 34 0.6
ESC Senator 6522 6494 28 0.4
ES Mentor 6386 6350 36 0.6
Aligator 7014 6991 23 0.3
Syverka 5603 5531 72 1.3
Adamos 4812 4768 44 0.9
Muza 5426 5370 56 1.0
Average   5650 5593.7 56.3 1.0
III decade of May Biliavka 5238 5067 171 3.4
Sprytna 5111 4987 124 2.5
Malvina 5642 5510 132 2.4
Average   5330.3 5188 142.3 2.8

Table 5. Percentage of damaged seeds by pea pod borer caterpillars in the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region (July 2018).

According to Table 5, in the first sowing period (III decade of April), the number of seeds per 100 plants was from 4851 pieces (Biliavka) to 6498 pieces (Malvina). The percentage of damage ranged from 0.2% to 0.5%. In the second sowing period (II decade of May), the number of seeds per 100 plants reached 4724 pieces (Biliavka) to 7014 pieces in the Aligator variety. The percentage of damage ranged from 0.3% to 1.6%. In the third sowing period (III May decade), the number of seeds per 100 plants was from 5111 pieces (Sprytna) to 5642 pieces (Malvina). The percentage of damage ranged from 2.4% to 3.4%.

According to Table 6, in the first sowing period (III decade of April), the number of seeds per 100 plants ranged from 5093 pieces (Biliavka) to 6396 pieces (Malvina). The percentage of damage ranged from 0.1% to 0.3%; In the second sowing period (II decade of May), the number of seeds per 100 plants increased from 4726 pieces (Krasunia) to 7081 pieces on the Aligator variety. The percentage of damage ranged from 0.2% to 0.8%; in the third sowing period (III decade of May), the number of seeds per 100 plants increased from 5236 pieces (Biliavka) to 5638 pieces (Malvina). The percentage of damage ranged from 0.6% to 0.8%.

Sowing period Variety Seeds (pieces)
In total, for 100 plants Intact Damaged %
III decade of April Biliavka 5093 5084 9 0.1
Sprytna 5993 5981 12 0.2
Malvina 6396 6380 16 0.3
average   5827.3 5815 12.3 0.2
II decade of May Biliavka 5228 5207 21 0.4
Sprytna 6281 6258 23 0.4
Malvina 5870 5844 26 0.4
Annushka 5579 5547 32 0.6
Korada 7041 7004 37 0.5
Vyshyvanka 5879 5851 28 0.5
Kobza 5345 5310 35 0.7
Krasunia 4726 4686 40 0.6
Baika 6722 6693 29 0.4
Perlyna 5504 5467 37 0.7
Raiduga 4952 4929 23 0.5
Melodiia 5162 5129 33 0.6
Pysanka 5468 5426 42 0.7
Sloboda 4923 4883 40 0.8
Aleksandryt 6086 6068 18 0.3
ESC Senator 6470 6446 24 0.4
ES Mentor 6595 6580 15 0.2
Aligator 7081 7046 35 0.5
Syverka 5240 5201 39 0.7
Adamos 4990 4948 42 0.8
Muza 5440 5412 28 0.5
Average   5742 5711.2 30.8 0.5
III decade of May Biliavka 5236 5195 41 0.8
Sprytna 5345 5311 34 0.6
Malvina 5638 5593 45 0.8
Average   5406.3 5366.3 40 0.7

Table 6. Percentage of damaged seeds by pea pod borer caterpillars in the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region (July 2019).

According to Table 7, in the first sowing period (III decade of April), the number of seeds per 100 plants ranged from 5,200 pieces (Biliavka) to 6,239 pieces (Malvina). The percentage of damage ranged from 0.6% to 1.1%; in the second sowing period (II decade of May), the number of seeds per 100 plants reached 4695 pieces (Krasunia) to 7345 pieces on the Korada variety. The percentage of damage ranged from 0.4% to 1.8%; In the third sowing period (III decade of May), the number of seeds per 100 plants was reached from 5275 pieces (Sprytna) to 5806 pieces (Malvina). The percentage of damage ranged from 1.3% to 1.6%.

Sowing period Variety Seeds (pieces)
In total, for 100 plants Intact Damaged %
III decade of April Biliavka 5200 5141 58 1.1
Sprytna 6058 6022 36 0.6
Malvina 6239 6199 40 0.6
Average   5832.3 5787.3 44.7 0.8
II decade of May Biliavka 5123 5045 78 1.5
Sprytna 6421 6335 86 1.4
Malvina 6125 6045 80 1.3
Annushka 5578 5520 58 1.1
Korada 7345 7271 74 1.0
Vyshyvanka 6041 5939 102 1.7
Kobza 5226 5150 76 1.5
Krasunia 4695 4611 84 1.8
Baika 6980 6886 94 1.4
Perlyna 5123 5051 72 1.4
Raiduga 4860 4778 82 1.7
Melodiia 5103 5025 78 1.6
Pysanka 5648 5578 70 1.3
Sloboda 5016 4962 54 1.1
Aleksandryt 6186 6142 44 0.7
ESC Senator 6593 6569 24 0.4
ES Mentor 6603 6573 30 0.5
Aligator 7125 7089 36 0.5
Syverka 5382 5314 68 1.3
Adamos 5086 5028 58 0.6
Muza 5586 5511 75 1.4
Average   5802.1 5734.4 67.8 1.2
III decade of May Biliavka 5537 5465 72 1.3
Sprytna 5275 5197 78 1.5
Malvina 5806 5716 90 1.6
Average   5539.3 5459.3 80 1.5

Table 7. Percentage of damaged seeds by pea pod borer caterpillars in the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region (July 2020).

In our study, experiments were conducted on seeds damaged by pea pod borer caterpillars under the laboratory conditions of the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region. The seeds were analyzed for fat and protein content. The data are included in Table 8.

Crop The name of a sample 2018 2019 2020 Average for 2018-2020
Soybean Protein content,% Oil content,
%
Protein content,
%
Oil content,
%
Protein content,% Oil content,
%
Protein content,
%
Oil content,%
Undamaged ? 33.20 21.29 40.83 20.53 36.3 21.29 36.78 21.04
Undamaged ?? 35.00 21.32 40.77 20.66 36.9 21.38 37.56 21.12
Undamaged ??? 32.78 21.32 41.08 20.77 36.6 21.43 36.82 21.17
Average 33.66 21.31 40.89 20.65 36.6 21.36 37.05 21.10
Damaged ? 35.72 20.36 41.00 18.96 38.4 20.20 38.37 19.84
Damaged ?? 36.11 20.74 41.08 18.86 38.8 20.12 38.66 19.90
Damaged ??? 36.14 19.80 41.13 18.80 39.1 19.96 39.09 19.52
Average 35.99 20.3 41.07 18.87 38.76 20.09 38.61 19.75

Table 8. Results of analysis of protein and oil content of soybean samples from the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region in 2018-2020.

According to Table 8, on average for 2018-2020, the following results were obtained: damaged seeds-38.61% of protein and 19.75% of oil; undamaged seeds-37.05% and 21.10% of oil.

During 2018-2020, soybean crops were monitored for pea pod borer caterpillars and the most colonized varieties were sprayed with insecticides. The obtained data are included in Tables 9, 10, 11.

Experiment variant Pest population density (specimens/plant) before spraying and on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after spraying Technical efficiency of action (%) on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days after spraying
before 3 7 14 3 7 14
Control H2O 0.29 0.24 0.27 0.32      
Koragen, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha) 0.29 0.24 0.14 0.05 17 51 82
Nurel D, 55% emulsion concentrate(1.0 l/ha) 0.29 0.21 0.18 0.10 28 38 66
Chlorpyrivit-agro, 55% emulsion concentrate(1.0 l/ha) 0.29 0.26 0.17 0.13 10 41 55
Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha) 0.29 0.22 0.12 0.08 24 59 72
SED05 -- 0.19 0.16 0.12 --
Note: * SED - the most minor essential difference.

Table 9. Technical efficiency of insecticide application in protecting soybean from pea pod borer caterpillars at the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region in 2018.

Experiment variant Pest population density (specimens/plant) before spraying and on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after spraying Technical efficiency of action (%) on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days after spraying
Before 3 7 14 3 7 14
Control H2O 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.18      
Koragen,20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha) 0.15 0.11 0.08 0.04 26 46 73
Nurel D, 55% emulsion concentrate(1.0 l/ha) 0.15 0.13 0.10 0.07 13 33 53
Chlorpyrivit-agro, 55% emulsion concentrate(1.0 l/ha) 0.15 0.11 0.08 0.06 26 46 60
Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha) 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.05 33 53 66
SED05 -- 0.09 0.09 0.10 --
Note: * SED - the most minor essential difference.

Table 10. Technical efficiency of insecticide application in protecting soybean from pea pod borer caterpillars at the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region in 2019.

Experiment variant Pest population density (specimens/plant) before spraying and on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after spraying Technical efficiency of action (%) on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days after spraying
Before 3 7 14 3 7 14
Control H2O 0.21 0.18 0.20 0.24 - - -
Koragen,20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha) 0.21 0.18 0.14 0.04 14 33 81
Nurel D, 55% emulsion concentrate(1.0 l/ha) 0.21 0.17 0.13 0.08 19 38 62
Chlorpyrivit-agro, 55% emulsion concentrate(1.0 l/ha) 0.21 0.15 0.11 0.06 29 47 71
Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha) 0.21 0.17 0.10 0.07 19 52 67
SED05 -- 0.14 0.08 0.08 --
Note: * SED-the smallest essential difference.

Table 11. Technical efficiency of insecticide application in protecting soybean from pea pod borer caterpillars at the State Enterprise "Experimental Farm "Elitne" of V.Y.Yuriev Plant Production Institute of NAAS of Ukraine Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region in 2020.

According to Table 9, it can be seen that the most significant technical efficiency on the 3rd day was shown by the preparation Nurel D, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha)-28%, on the 7th day-Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-59%, on the 14th day-preparation Koragen,20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-82%.

According to Table 11 the best technical efficiency on day 3 was shown by preparation Chlorpyrivit-agro, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha) -29%, on day 7 Antigusin preparation, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-52%, on day 14 Koragen preparation, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-81%.

Conclusion

According to the data of the experiments, it can be concluded that the soybean plants that were sown in the third decade of May and reached the grain filling phase were the most damaged. The number of caterpillars in soybean plants in 2018 ranged from 2 to 29 specimens/100 plants, in 2019-from 2 to 22 specimens/ 100 plants, in 2020-from 2 to 21 specimens/100 plants. When soybean plants were examined, the damage was also found to beans and seeds. In 2018, the percentage of damage ranged from 0.3% to 3.7%, in 2019 from 0.2% to 0.9%, and in 2020 from 0.6% to 1.8%. The percentage of damaged seeds was: in 2018-from 0.2% to 3.4%, in 2019-from 0.1% to 0.8%, and in 2020-from 0.6% to 1.8%. Analysis of seeds for oil and protein content showed that when seeds are damaged by pea pod borer, the oil content is greatly reduced and is a significant indicator of soybean seed quality. With the massive damage to beans caused by this pest, it can be lost 70-80% of the yield (depending on the sowing period, even up to 90%). During 2018-2020, soybean crops were monitored for pea pod borer caterpillars and the most colonized varieties were sprayed with insecticides. In 2018, the highest technical efficiency was shown on the third day by the preparation of Nurel D, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha)-28%, on the 7th day-Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-59%, on the 14th day-preparation Koragen, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-82%. In 2019, the best technical efficiency on the third day was shown by preparation of Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-33%, on the seventh day-also preparation of Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-53%, on the 14th day-Preparation Koragen, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-73%. In 2020, the best technical efficiency on day 3 was shown by Chlorpyrivit-agro preparation, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha)-29%, on day 7 Antigusin 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-52%, on day 14 Koragen preparation, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-81%.

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Author Info

N.V. Lutytska1, S. Stankevych1*, O. Romanov1, V.G. Mikheev1 and H.O. Balan2
 
1V.V. Dokuchaev Kharkiv National Agrarian University, v. Dokuchaevske, Kharkiv region, 62483, Ukraine
2Odessa State Agrarian University, 13 Panteleimonivska Street, Odessa, 65012, Ukraine
 

Citation: Lutytska, N.V., Stankevych, S., Romanov, O., Mikheev, V.G., Balan, H.O. (2021). Harmfulness of pea pod borer (Etiella zinckenella Tr. 1832) in soybeans in the eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11 (7), 77-86.

Received Date: Aug 02, 2021 / Accepted Date: Sep 16, 2021 / Published Date: Sep 27, 2021

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