Harmfulness of pea pod borer (Etiella zinckenella Tr. 1832) in soybeans in the eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
Soybean is the main leguminous crop in the world. Its grain is balanced in protein and digestible amino acids. Among the dangerous soybean pests, scientists distinguish pea pod borer (leguminous) (Etiella zinckenella Tr.). Our research on soybean crops was carried out during 2018-2020 in the state enterprise 'Experimental Farm' Elitne', Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region. The plants were examined for the presence of pea pod borer caterpillars and damaged beans. All the results obtained were processed and inserted into tables. The number of caterpillars in soybean plants in 2018 ranged from 2 to 29 specimens/100 plants, in 2019 from 2 to 22 specimens/100 plants, in 2020 from 2 to 21 specimens/100 plants. When soybean plants were examined, the damage was also found to beans and seeds. In 2018, the percentage of damage ranged from 0.3% to 3.7%, in 2019 from 0.2% to 0.9% and in 2020 from 0.6% to 1.8%. The percentage of damaged seeds was: in 2018-from 0.2% to 3.4%, in 2019-from 0.1% to 0.8% and in 2020-from 0.6% to 1.8%. In our study, we conducted experiments on damaged seeds by pea pod borer under laboratory conditions of V. Ya. Yuriev Institute of Plant Cultivation of NAAS. We have done a seed analysis for fat and protein content. On average, for 2018-2020, the following data were obtained: undamaged seeds contained 37.05% protein, 21.10% fat, and damaged seeds-38.61% and 19.75%, respectively. During 2018-2020, soybean crops were monitored for pea pod borer caterpillars, and the most colonized varieties were sprayed with insecticides. In 2018, Nurel D showed the greatest technical efficiency on day 3, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha)-28%, on day 7-Antygusin, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-59%, on day 14-Preparation Koragen, 20% suspension concentrate. (0.2 l/ha)-82%; in 2019, the best technical efficiency on day 3 was shown by Antygusin preparation, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha) -33%, on day 7-also preparation Antygusin, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha) -53%, on day 14 - Koragen preparation, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-73%; in 2020, the best technical efficiency on day 3 was shown by Chlorpyrivit-agro, 55% emulsion concentrate (1.0 l/ha)-29%, on day 7-Antygusin, 50% suspension concentrate (0.15 l/ha)-52%, on 14 day preparation Koragen, 20% suspension concentrate (0.2 l/ha)-81%.